ADAM, a hands‐on patient simulator for teaching principles of drug disposition and compartmental pharmacokinetics
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Format: Journal Article
Publication Year: 2017
Pages: 2426 - 2449
Source ID: shanti-sources-83626
Collection: Contemplative Pedagogy in Higher Education
Abstract: AimsTo design, construct and validate a pharmacokinetics simulator that offers students hands‐on opportunities to participate in the design, administration and analysis of oral and intravenous dosing regimens. Methods The Alberta Drug Administration Modeller (ADAM) is a mechanical patient in which peristaltic circulation of water through a network of silicone tubing and glass bottles creates a representation of the outcomes of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Changing peristaltic pump rates and volumes in bottles allows values for pharmacokinetic constants to be varied, thereby simulating differences in drug properties and in patient physiologies and pathologies. Following administration of methylene blue dye by oral or intravenous routes, plasma and/or urine samples are collected and drug concentrations are determined spectrophotometrically. The effectiveness of the simulator in enhancing student competence and confidence was assessed in two undergraduate laboratory classes. Results The simulator effectively models one‐ and two‐compartment drug behaviour in a mathematically‐robust and realistic manner. Data allow calculation of numerous pharmacokinetic constants, by traditional graphing methods or with curve‐fitting software. Students' competence in solving pharmacokinetic problems involving calculations and graphing improved significantly, while an increase in confidence and understanding was reported. Conclusions The ADAM is relatively inexpensive and straightforward to construct, and offers a realistic, hands‐on pharmacokinetics learning opportunity for students that effectively complements didactic lectures.