An Adaptation for Altruism: The Social Causes, Social Effects, and Social Evolution of Gratitude
Current Directions in Psychological Science
Format: Journal Article
Publication Year: 2008
Pages: 281 - 285
Source ID: shanti-sources-48181
Abstract: People feel grateful when they have beneﬁted from someone’s costly, intentional, voluntary effort on their behalf. Experiencing gratitude motivates beneﬁciaries to repay their benefactors and to extend generosity to third parties. Expressions of gratitude also reinforce benefactors for their generosity. These social features distinguish gratitude from related emotions such as happiness and feelings of indebtedness. Evolutionary theories propose that gratitude is an adaptation for reciprocal altruism (the sequential exchange of costly beneﬁts between nonrelatives) and, perhaps, upstream reciprocity (a payit-forward style distribution of an unearned beneﬁt to a third party after one has received a beneﬁt from another benefactor). Gratitude therefore may have played a unique role in human social evolution.