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Tara Tonini is a yoga teacher, Doula, Reiki Master and Acupuncture student with a passion for women's health. She leads trauma informed teacher trainings for Exhale to Inhale and mentors teachers serving survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault in New York and Los Angeles.

Kathryn Budig is an internationally celebrated yoga teacher, author of Aim True, and cohost of the podcast, Free Cookies.She served as the yoga editor to Women’s Health magazine for five years, and regularly contributes to Yoga Journal, and MindBodyGreen. In this episode, we discuss: What life was like growing up in Kansas How the yoga community has changed over the years What changed yoga? What initially drew Kathryn to yoga? Seane Corn showing up to Kathyrn’s yoga class, unexpectedly Forming a tight knit community off the yoga mat The message behind “Aim True” It’s easier being the vanilla cupcake that everyone likes Feeling totally cool being yourself Don’t get caught up in needing the approval of others We all have some level of body image issues Speak positively for yourself and those around you Everyone is so beautiful Writing positive affirmations on your mirror using a Sharpie Every single day is a new opportunity Connecting to yourself and loved ones through rituals Has Kathryn’s focus shifted from yoga? Kathryn’s morning routine Turning off your phone

Suffering from anxiety attacks? Karen Brody talks about how yoga nidra complete stopped her anxiety attacks for good.

Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by deficits in self-regulation, including impulsivity and affective instability. Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is an evidence-based treatment with proven effectiveness in reducing symptoms across multiple cognitive-emotional domains in patients with BPD. In this study, longitudinal changes in neural activation patterns and predictors of treatment response were investigated using a dimensional symptom-based approach. Methods: A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation paradigm was used pre and post-TFP in patients with BPD, with statistical parametric analyses, to test hypotheses concerning the identification of frontolimbic biomarkers for clinical improvement. Using a within-subjects design, BPD subjects (N=10; mean age=27.8) were scanned pretreatment, and again after approximately one-year of TFP using a disorder-specific emotional linguistic go/no-go fMRI paradigm. Results: Analyses confirmed significant treatment related effects with relative increases in dorsal prefrontal cognitive control regions (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and relative decreases in ventrolateral prefrontal and hippocampal areas following treatment. Clinical improvement in affective lability correlated positively with activity in left posterior-medial orbitofrontal cortex/ventral striatum (small-volume-corrected p value (psvc)=0.028); right amygdala/ parahippocampal activation correlated negatively with improvements in affective lability (psvc=0.005). Pretreatment hypoactivation in the left posterior-medial orbitofrontal cortex/ventral striatum predicted improvements in affective lability (psvc=0.013), and posttreatment improvements in constraint were predicted by pretreatment right anterior-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex hypoactivation (psvc=0.002). Conclusions: Individuals with BPD whose symptoms improved following TFP demonstrated modulation of neural activity in brain regions known to be implicated in behavioral inhibition in the context of negative emotional processing.

Yoga practice adds measured results to recovery with depression & anxiety - affects brain function, neurophysiology, in a constructive, rehabilitative way.

Dana Falsetti is a yoga instructor with a simple but revolutionary idea--yoga should be for everybody. Campaigning for equality, shame disruption, empowerment, sexual freedom and confidence, Dana has gained an online following of more than half a million people. She has traveled worldwide, hosting dozens of workshops for those seeking similar insights, and several of her viral videos have gleaned more than 20 million views. Dana won the 2017 Shorty Award for Health and Wellness on Social Media and had been featured in publications such as Seventeen, Women’s Health, People, Cosmopolitan, Huffington Post and Buzzfeed, among others. She has built her own platform where yoga students pay only what they can afford, for a practice that suits their ability status, and where compassion is at the heart of every lesson.Dana’s message really does just boil down to compassion for people of all sizes, all races, all ages, and all ability statuses. The lack of empathy in diet culture and the corporate wellness industry has led to a very visual and commercial understanding of “health.” Dana advocates for a broader, more holistic understanding of health that cannot be determined by your BMI (body mass index). Like many people, Dana dealt with a lot of shame throughout her life. She believed that she had to be a specific weight and reach a certain standard of beauty, to be allowed to thrive in modern society. Five years ago, she found yoga, and it helped pull her out of the insidious grasp of diet culture. While Dana has had her ups and downs during her yoga journey, she has reached a point where existing as herself and living her best life in the body is her highest truth - and she's helping others do the same.

This book argues for the central role played by absorption in the functioning of the human mind. The importance of absorption makes itself felt in different ways; the two studies combined in this book concentrate on two of them. The first study, 'The Symbolic Mind', argues that, largely as a result of language acquisition, humans have two levels of cognition, which in normal circumstances are simultaneously active. Absorption is a (or the) means to circumvent some, perhaps all, of the associations that characterize one of these two levels of cognition, resulting in what is sometimes referred to as mysitcal experience, but which is not confined to mysticism and plays a role in various "religious" phenomena, and elsewhere. In the second study, 'The Psychology of the Buddha', Prof. Bronkhorst provides a theoretical context for the observation that absorption is a source of pleasure, grapples with Freud, and illustrates his observations through translations of ancient Buddhist texts from the Pali ans Sanskrit languages along with his psychological commentary.
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After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning.
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Based on promising results with adults, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) presents as a treatment opportunity for depressed adolescents. We present a pilot study that compares ACT with treatment as usual (TAU), using random allocation of participants who were clinically referred to a psychiatric outpatient service. Participants were 30 adolescents, aged M = 14.9 (SD = 2.55), with 73.6% in the clinical range for depression. At posttreatment on measures of depression participants in the ACT condition showed significantly greater improvement statistically (d = 0.38), and 58% showed clinically reliable change with a response ratio of 1.59 in favor of ACT. Outcomes from 3-month follow-up data are tentative due to small numbers but suggest that improvement increased in magnitude. Measures of global functioning showed statistically significant improvement for both conditions, although clinical change measures favored only the ACT condition. The results support conducting a larger trial of ACT for the treatment of adolescent depression.
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Traditional expressive writing (EW) and EW augmented by emotion-acceptance instructions (EWEA) were compared to non-emotional control writing for their ability to forestall depression symptoms in undergraduates with high or low initial levels of depression symptomatology. EWEA instructions encouraged participants to take a more accepting, “emotion friendly” approach toward expressive writing, stressing the importance of “staying present” with difficult emotional experiences non-judgmentally and with openness. Writing condition interacted significantly with initial depression such that at the 5-week posttest, EWEA was more beneficial than control writing for participants with low to mild initial depression symptoms (CESD <17) and EW was more beneficial than control writing for participants with very low initial depression symptoms (CESD <8). But for the EW condition, this effect was reversed such that participants in this condition with high initial depression (CESD >26) fared worse at posttest than those in the control group.

Given that unwanted thoughts are enhanced when suppressed, we tested among college freshmen who were about to take an academic exam if an acceptance strategy consisting of not suppressing intrusive thoughts will improve test performance. This strategy proved superior to students’ own default strategies as much as a modified, alternative strategy, avoiding the antecedents of intrusive thoughts. Moreover, the combination of the two strategies counteracted a stronger, negative effect of test anxiety on test performance as compared with each strategy used alone. The results suggest that not only intrusive thoughts per se but also the suppression of these thoughts can disrupt test performance, and hint that approaching such thoughts with acceptance may not interfere with simultaneously working toward avoiding the antecedents of these thoughts.

Website of the Association for Contemplative Mind in Higher Education. The website includes a bibliography related to contemplative practice and contemplative education, including several papers written by fellows of the Association available as PDFs on the website.

To gain insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in Zen meditation, we evaluated the effects of focused attention (FA) on breathing movements in the lower abdomen (Tanden) in novices. We investigated hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an attention-related brain region, using 24-channel near-infrared spectroscopy during a 20-minute session of FA on Tanden breathing in 15 healthy volunteers. We found that the level of oxygenated hemoglobin in the anterior PFC was significantly increased during FA on Tanden breathing, accompanied by a reduction in feelings of negative mood compared to before the meditation session. Electroencephalography (EEG) revealed increased alpha band activity and decreased theta band activity during and after FA on Tanden breathing. EEG changes were correlated with a significant increase in whole blood serotonin (5-HT) levels. These results suggest that activation of the anterior PFC and 5-HT system may be responsible for the improvement of negative mood and EEG signal changes observed during FA on Tanden breathing.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acute and chronic effects of yoga practice. DESIGN: Quantitative study using a one-group pre-posttest design. SETTING: Visao Futuro Institute, Porangaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 22 volunteers (7 men and 15 women). INTERVENTION: Six weeks of a tantric yoga program (TYP), 50 minutes per session, held twice a week from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. The local ethics committee approved the protocol. OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected in the first week and at the end of the sixth week of TYP. Salivary cortisol concentration (SCC) was used to measure physiology of distress and to analyze the short- and long-term effects of TYP. Psychological distress was evaluated by applying a specific perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ). Results (mean+/-standard deviation) were analyzed by Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). RESULTS: SCC decreased 24% after the first (0.66+/-0.20 mug/dL versus 0.50+/-0.13 mug/dL) and last (1.01+/-0.37 versus 0.76+/-0.31 mug/dL) sessions, showing the short-term effect of yoga. Long-term effects were analyzed by daily rhythm of cortisol production. In the beginning, volunteers showed altered SCC during the day, with nighttime values (0.42+/-0.28) higher than those at noon (0.30+/-0.06). After the TYP, SCC was higher in the morning (1.01+/-0.37) and decreased during the day, with lower values before sleep (0.30+/-0.13). The TYP was also efficient to reduce PSQ scores (0.45+/-0.13 versus 0.39+/-0.07). Specifically, the irritability, tension, and fatigue domains on the PSQ decreased (0.60+/-0.20 versus 0.46+/-0.13), as did the fear and anxiety domains (0.54+/-0.30 versus 0.30+/-0.20). CONCLUSION: Over the short term, TYP led to the decrease of cortisol production. Over the long term, TYP induced higher cortisol production in the morning and lower production in the evening. Those effects contributed to the physical and mental well-being of the participants.

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