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PURPOSE: To systematically evaluate and quantify the effects of Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ) on motor (UPDRS III, balance, falls, Timed-Up-and-Go, and 6-Minute Walk) and non-motor (depression and cognition) function, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).METHODS: A systematic search in 7 electronic databases targeted clinical studies evaluating TCQ for individuals with PD published through August 2016. Meta-analysis was used to estimate effect sizes (Hedges's g) and publication bias for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodological bias in RCTs was assessed by two raters. RESULTS: Our search identified 21 studies, 15 of which were RCTs with a total of 735 subjects. For RCTs, comparison groups included no treatment (n = 7, 47%) and active interventions (n = 8, 53%). Duration of TCQ ranged from 2 to 6 months. Methodological bias was low in 6 studies, moderate in 7, and high in 2. Fixed-effect models showed that TCQ was associated with significant improvement on most motor outcomes (UPDRS III [ES = -0.444, p < 0.001], balance [ES = 0.544, p < 0.001], Timed-Up-and-Go [ES = -0.341, p = 0.005], 6 MW [ES = -0.293, p = 0.06], falls [ES = -0.403, p = 0.004], as well as depression [ES = -0.457, p = 0.008] and QOL [ES = -0.393, p < 0.001], but not cognition [ES = -0.225, p = 0.477]). I2 indicated limited heterogeneity. Funnel plots suggested some degree of publication bias. CONCLUSION: Evidence to date supports a potential benefit of TCQ for improving motor function, depression and QOL for individuals with PD, and validates the need for additional large-scale trials.

There is a significant drive in education to provide mental health supports in schools. One of the key approaches for this is through effective universal supports for students by implementing social and emotional learning (SEL). However, there has been little investigation of effective implementation accounting for the diversity of school environments. Through a secondary data analysis of an efficacy study for the Second Step curriculum, the current study assesses the role of environmental factors and the impact of student-teacher racial mismatch in implementation. The analysis uses a hierarchical linear modeling approach to assess both classroom and school level factors impact on effective implementation. The results demonstrate that environmental factors played little role in the effective implementation. Although mismatch did not impact the delivery of the curriculum, the results indicate significant difference in teachers' perception of students' engagement with the curriculum. Further analysis revealed interactional relationships with school level variables. Discussion of the implications of these findings along with future directions for research conclude this dissertation.

The intent of the current research was to explore the impact of a specific Tibetan Buddhist meditation course containing a lab for applied practice of modern techniques upon psychological well-being in college students. We evaluated the impact of a semester-long undergraduate Tibetan Buddhist meditation course on the psychological well-being of 205 students and assessed whether changes in well-being were mediated by mindfulness. The course was composed of two weekly lectures regarding the tradition and modern applications of meditation, respectively, and a weekly lab in which the students were taught a survey of related modern contemplative techniques to practice. Students were assessed at the beginning, middle, and end of the course, and their time spent practicing the exercises were prospectively recorded. Participants reported statistically significant increases in self-reported mindfulness, self-compassion, and positive coping and significant decreases in self-reported anxiety. Mindfulness was a significant predictor of changes in self-compassion and anxiety. These results suggest that a large lecture course with weekly meditation practice can have a positive impact on the psychological well-being of students and that some of these changes are mediated by mindfulness.

The intent of the current research was to explore the impact of a specific Tibetan Buddhist meditation course containing a lab for applied practice of modern techniques upon psychological well-being in college students. We evaluated the impact of a semester-long undergraduate Tibetan Buddhist meditation course on the psychological well-being of 205 students and assessed whether changes in well-being were mediated by mindfulness. The course was composed of two weekly lectures regarding the tradition and modern applications of meditation, respectively, and a weekly lab in which the students were taught a survey of related modern contemplative techniques to practice. Students were assessed at the beginning, middle, and end of the course, and their time spent practicing the exercises were prospectively recorded. Participants reported statistically significant increases in self-reported mindfulness, self-compassion, and positive coping and significant decreases in self-reported anxiety. Mindfulness was a significant predictor of changes in self-compassion and anxiety. These results suggest that a large lecture course with weekly meditation practice can have a positive impact on the psychological well-being of students and that some of these changes are mediated by mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the role of dispositional mindfulness in impacting the relational benefits of yoga in novice practitioners in an undergraduate academic yoga course.PARTICIPANTS: 21 college students enrolled in a yoga course throughout a 15-week academic semester (January-April 2016). METHODS: Participants attended lab assessments at the beginning and end of the semester and were asked to complete eight consecutive Internet-based daily surveys across six separate bursts, yielding 48 data points for each participant. RESULTS: Multivariate time-series analyses revealed within-person subgroup differences such that in general, those in the high trait mindfulness group gleaned benefits from yoga practice with respect to relational outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated trait mindfulness impacts relational outcomes in novice yoga practitioners, suggesting those low in trait mindfulness may not garner immediate relational benefits from yoga and could benefit from additional strategies to bolster against any negative influences of initiating yoga practice.

This study expands upon the extant prior meta-analytic literature by exploring previously theorised reasons for the failure of school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programmes to produce expected results. Eighty-nine studies reporting the effects of school-based, universal SEL programmes were examined for differential effects on the basis of: (1) stage of evaluation (efficacy or effectiveness); (2) involvement from the programme developer in the evaluation (led, involved, independent); and (3) whether the programme was implemented in its country of origin (home or away). A range of outcomes were assessed including: social-emotional competence, attitudes towards self, pro-social behaviour, conduct problems, emotional distress, academic achievement and emotional competence. Differential gains across all three factors were shown, although not always in the direction hypothesised. The findings from the current study demonstrate a revised and more complex relationship between identified factors and dictate major new directions for the field.

BACKGROUND: Studies using yoga have demonstrated initial efficacy for treating symptoms across anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. OBJECTIVE: Understanding how interventions influence participants' physical activity and what determinants affect continued physical activity behavior change is important because maintenance of the behavior may be critical to continued mental health gains and symptom reduction. METHODS: This study investigated change in physical activity and possible psychological mechanisms of physical activity behavior change, including self-efficacy and regulatory motivation, in a randomized controlled trial of yoga for women with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (n=38). RESULTS: Growth curve modeling results showed no significant changes in physical activity or self-efficacy for either group, whereas external motivation decreased significantly in the yoga group but not in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Investigators of future yoga interventions may want to focus on increasing self-efficacy and internal regulatory motivation, so that physical activity and resultant symptom relief can be maintained.

Qualitative researcher for the MYRIAD project, looking at processes of implementing mindfulness in school settings.

OBJECTIVE: A Mental Health Task Force (MHTF) was implemented in 2016 by a collegiate-based emergency medical services (CBEMS) organization to (1) improve mental health emergency response and to (2) address concerns for the mental health of CBEMS providers.PARTICIPANTS: Skidmore College EMS is a Basic Life Support First Response service staffed by volunteer undergraduate students. METHODS: In coordination with faculty and staff, students in the MHTF developed trainings, peer support structures, community events, policies, and informational resources. RESULTS: Sixteen students joined the MHTF within 1 year. Over 35 Skidmore College EMS members received training on mental health emergency response, peer-support, and self-care. Debriefing programs, mindfulness-based events, shift-length limitations, and access to informational resources promoted the mental health of Skidmore College EMS members. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing an MHTF is an innovative, student-led approach to coupling education on emergency response with programming that supports the mental health of CBEMS providers.

Zins and his colleagues pointed out that understanding implementation of school-based prevention programs is a critical issue as we get more sophisticated about strategies to promote children's social and emotional skill development. This commentary discusses school-based program implementation, challenges, lessons learned, and future directions for effective implementation. It also summarizes a review of model programs in schools to provide a snapshot of the state of implementation research.

The aim of this study was to build an implementation process model for social-emotional interventions. Case studies were conducted at five primary schools in England nominated as "lead practise" by their local authorities. Data collection comprised interviews with school staff, children and parents, observations of intervention sessions and other settings, and document analysis. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. In brief, the process model of Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning small group work indicates that successful implementation is dependent upon a range of factors, ranging from the skills and experience of the group facilitator to the availability of an appropriate physical space to conduct the sessions. Key aspects of the delivery of small group interventions included setting achievable targets for children, providing constant reinforcement of desirable behaviour, and providing opportunities for pupils to verbalise their emotional experiences. We discuss the implications of the model and make recommendations for future development in this area. (Contains 2 figures, 2 tables and 2 notes.)

Sporadic and inconsistent implementation remains a significant challenge for social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. This may be partly explained by the dearth of flexible, causative models that capture the multifarious determinants of implementation practices within complex systems. This paper draws upon Rogers (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory to explain the adoption, implementation and discontinuance of a SEL intervention. A pragmatic, formative process evaluation was conducted in alignment with phase 1 of the UK Medical Research Council's framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions. Employing case-study methodology, qualitative data were generated with four socio-economically and academically contrasting secondary schools in Wales implementing the Student Assistance Programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 programme stakeholders. Data suggested that variation in implementation activity could be largely attributed to four key intervention reinvention points, which contributed to the transformation of the programme as it interacted with contextual features and individual needs. These reinvention points comprise the following: intervention training, which captures the process through which adopters acquire knowledge about a programme and delivery expertise; intervention assessment, which reflects adopters' evaluation of an intervention in relation to contextual needs; intervention clarification, which comprises the cascading of knowledge through an organisation in order to secure support in delivery; and intervention responsibility, which refers to the process of assigning accountability for sustainable delivery. Taken together, these points identify opportunities to predict and intervene with potential implementation problems. Further research would benefit from exploring additional reinvention activity.

Many attempts at bringing successful educational programs and products "to scale" as part of school reform, particularly in urban districts, have been disappointing. Based on the experiences of the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) and reviews of literature addressing implementation failures, observations about failures to "scale up" are presented. These include persistent structural features in educational settings that are too often unrecognized, the perpetuation of a narrow and decontextualized "programs and packages" perspective, poor management of time and other resources, and inadequate attention to characteristics of the adults who must carry out planned reforms. Several assumptions essential for success are identified, including the need to incorporate social and emotional learning as an integral part of academics and the ways in which diversity provides an ever-changing context for implementation. Concluding thoughts center around three points: the need to prepare professionals with the array of skills needed to lead efforts at scaling up school reform, the importance of an action-research perspective, and the need to better document the stories of educational innovation and scaling up efforts so that contextual details can enrich an understanding of what is required for success. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

Purpose: Mindfulness-based interventions – which train capacities for attention, awareness, compassion, and self-regulation of thoughts and emotions – may offer unique benefits for urban youth exposed to chronic stress and adversity. Urban schools are promising settings in which to integrate mindfulness-based interventions; however, they pose complex challenges for intervention implementation and evaluation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reflects on the experiences of our community-academic partnership conducting two school-based randomised trials on a mindfulness and yoga programme. The programme was developed by the Holistic Life Foundation and was delivered to middle school students in public schools serving disadvantaged urban communities. Findings: This paper discusses barriers and facilitating factors related to effective intervention delivery and evaluation, presents recommendations for future work and reflects on the potential benefits of mindfulness-based practices for students, teachers and schools.

There is expanding interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) within the mainstream. While there are research gaps, there is empirical evidence for these developments. Implementing new evidence into practice is always complex and difficult. Particular complexities and tensions arise when implementing MBPs in the mainstream. MBPs are emerging out of the confluence of different epistemologies—contemplative teaching and practice, and contemporary Western empiricism and culture. In the process of navigating implementation and integrity, and developing a professional practice context for this emerging field, the diverse influences within this confluence need careful attention and thought. Both contemplative practices, and mainstream institutions and professional practice have well-developed ethical understandings and integrity. MBPs aim to balance fidelity to both. This includes the need to further develop skillful expressions of the underpinning theoretical and philosophical framework for MBPs; to sensitively work with the boundary between mainstream and religious mindfulness; to develop organizational structures which support governance and collaboration; to investigate teacher training, supervision models, and teaching competence; to develop consensus on the ethical frameworks on which mainstream MBPs rests; and to build understanding and work skillfully with barriers to access to MBPs. It is equally important to attend to how these developments are conducted. This includes the need to align with values integral to mindfulness, and to hold longer-term intentions and directions, while taking small, deliberate steps in each moment. The MBP field needs to establish itself as a new professional field and stand on its own integrity.

Dr. David Lee Keiser and Julie Dalley present their work on developing and implementing a new contemplative pedagogy faculty fellowship at Montclair State University, discussing the steps taken: recruiting faculty, organizing the program, and program assessment. They share reflections from faculty participants on the effect of the program, exploring the diversity of experiences with mindful learning in the classroom as well as the transformative effect on the faculty themselves.

In order to effectively transport universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs into natural settings, it is important to understand implementation barriers that may hinder the likelihood of successful outcomes (Fixsen, Naoom, Blas�, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005). The current study is primarily based on the notion that within the planning phase of implementation, few technically adequate assessment measures targeting both organizational capacity (OC) and provider characteristics (PC) for SEL programming actually exist. The purpose is to extend the SEL implementation assessment literature by developing a new rating scale designed to measure SEL implementation barriers (School SEL Capacity Assessment [SSCA]) and make preliminary inferences regarding the current state of SEL implementation. In order to satisfy our objectives, we evaluated the psychometric quality of the SSCA using the Rasch Rating Scale model. In all, the data are encouraging and provide promising validity evidence of internal structure for the OC and PC scales within the SSCA. Within reason, the SSCA met the qualifications for accurate measurement. Findings from the Rasch analysis helped us analyze survey response differences among subgroups, which included participants' stage-of-implementation, years of professional experience, grade level, and social economic status. Generally speaking, teachers who are maintaining an SEL program found it easier to endorse items on the SSCA, suggesting that they have more OC and PC attributes. Contrary to what we would expect, years of professional experience is not related to teachers' level of OC and PC attributes. Because they're so few teachers in several of the grade levels, any comparison would be tenuous and we have opted to not to include the analysis in our results. As anticipated however, the results show that teachers in high SES schools have significantly more OC attributes, but their level of PC attributes are not affected by their schools SES. Limitations of this study as well as directions for future research are discussed.

Memory for a recent event can be expressed explicitly, as conscious recollection, or implicitly, as a facilitation of test performance without conscious recollection. A growing number of recent studies have been concerned with implicit memory and its relation to explicit memory. This article presents an historical survey of observations concerning implicit memory, reviews the findings of contemporary experimental research, and delineates the strengths and weaknesses of alternative theoretical accounts of implicit memory. It is argued that dissociations between implicit and explicit memory have been documented across numerous tasks and subject populations, represent an important challenge for research and theory, and should be viewed in the context of other dissociations between implicit and explicit expressions of knowledge that have been documented in recent cognitive and neuropsychological research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

After discussing informal feedback from a district workshop for teachers of the gifted on the practice of mindfulness, the authors asked the question: Does research support the shared reactions of these teachers? A review of the literature showed there are a growing number of studies on mindfulness, but research on teachers and mindfulness is limited. However, the existing research supports the concept that teacher training in the practice of mindfulness is positive especially in the area of teacher burnout.

After discussing informal feedback from a district workshop for teachers of the gifted on the practice of mindfulness, the authors asked the question: Does research support the shared reactions of these teachers? A review of the literature showed there are a growing number of studies on mindfulness, but research on teachers and mindfulness is limited. However, the existing research supports the concept that teacher training in the practice of mindfulness is positive especially in the area of teacher burnout.

Whether an individual lives in a rural or urban setting may have direct impact on a wide variety of psychological patterns adopted by students. In this study, the effects of positive and negative social behaviors on the relationship between social and emotional learning needs and skills gaps of students who reside in both rural and urban areas have been examined. The participants of this research consist of 348 female and 319 male students, forming a total of 667 middle school students living in the province of Çanakkale, Turkey as well as in its surrounding areas. The Matson Social Skills Evaluation Scale, the Social-emotional Learning Scale, the Social and Emotional Learning Skills Scale, and personal information form were used to collect data for this research. The Baron and Kenny's approach and the Sobel test were followed during the examination of the model created in the data analysis process. The mediator test examined the effects of positive and negative social behaviors in relationship to students' level of social and emotional learning needs and social and emotional learning skills. As a result of this test, it was found that both positive and negative social behaviors exert partial mediation effects over students living in rural and urban areas of the province of Turkey researched.

The aim of this study was to explore teachers' (n = 17) experience with the Second Step program (1986) as a tool for teaching social competence through semi-structured interviews. Findings suggest that use of the program had a positive influence on the teachers' overall teaching techniques and their broader social behaviour. The majority of the teachers reported that they felt they had become more democratic and student-centred in their teaching, and more socially skilled--in particular, more aware of individuals' needs and problems by using the program. Further, results also suggest using the program to promote better collaboration with parents. (Contains 1 table.)

Yoga is increasing in popularity in the United States and across the globe. However, most yoga programs are provided outside the worksite; although many companies offer worksite wellness programs, at present there is limited documentation regarding the potential benefits of participating in a worksite yoga program. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to examine the potential effect of a worksite yoga program on self-acceptance, quality of life, and perceived stress. A prospective cohort pilot study that examined a structured worksite yoga program was designed and tailored to individuals new to yoga. The 8-week Yoga Foundations program was conducted at an academic medical center's worksite wellness center with 86 subjects. Outcome measures were the 36-item Self-Acceptance Scale; a six-item quality-of-life measure that assesses overall, social, mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being; and the ten-item Perceived Stress Scale. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in their overall self-acceptance ( p < 0.001), quality of life ( p < 0.001), and perceived stress ( p </= 0.001) levels. They also highly rated the yoga instructors and the weekly format of the program. Participation in a Yoga Foundations program was associated with improvements in self-acceptance, quality of life and stress levels in worksite wellness center members. Future studies should use randomized designs and examine other wellness domains to learn more about the potential benefits of worksite yoga programs.

OBJECTIVE:Mindfulness meditation reduces psychological distress among individuals with cancer. However, mechanisms for intervention effects have not been fully determined. This study tested emotion regulation strategies as mediators of intervention effects in a sample of younger women treated for breast cancer, a group at risk for psychological distress. We focused on two distinct strategies targeted by the intervention-rumination and self-kindness-and further examined the broader construct of mindfulness as a potential mediator. METHOD: Women (n = 71) with Stage 0-III breast cancer diagnosed at or before age 50 who had completed cancer treatment were randomly assigned to a 6-week mindfulness intervention or wait-list control group. Assessments occurred at study entry, postintervention, and a 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: In single mediator analyses, increases in self-kindness (CIB [-7.83, -1.93]), decreases in rumination (CIB [-5.05, -.31]), and increases in mindfulness (CIB [-6.58, -.82]) each mediated reductions in depressive symptoms from pre- to postintervention. Increases in self-kindness also mediated reductions in perceived stress (CIB [-5.37, -.62]) from pre- to postintervention, and increases in self-kindness (CIB [-5.67, -.22]) and in mindfulness (CIB [-5.51, -.16]) each mediated intervention effects on perceived stress from preintervention to 3-month follow-up. In multiple mediator analysis, only self-kindness mediated intervention effects on depressive symptoms from pre- to postintervention (CIB [-6.41, -.61]), and self-kindness and mindfulness together mediated intervention effects on perceived stress from preintervention to follow-up (CIB [-6.77, -.35]). CONCLUSIONS: Self-kindness played a consistent role in reducing distress in younger women with breast cancer. The efficacy of this understudied emotion regulation strategy should be evaluated in other clinical populations. (PsycINFO Database Record

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