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While a researcher at Oxford, William MacAskill decided to devote his study to a simple question: How can we do good better? MacAskill realized that, while most of us want to make a difference, we often decide how to do so based on assumptions and emotions rather than facts. As a result, our good intentions often lead to ineffective, sometimes downright harmful, outcomes. As an antidote, MacAskill and his colleagues developed effective altruism—a practical, data-driven approach to doing good that allows us to make a tremendous difference regardless of our resources. Effective altruists operate by asking certain key questions that force them to think differently, set aside biases, and use evidence and careful reasoning rather than act on impulse. In Doing Good Better, MacAskill lays out these principles and shows that, when we use them correctly—when we apply the head and the heart to each of our altruistic endeavors—each of us has the power to do an astonishing amount of good.

Ultra-athlete & bestselling author Rich Roll talks with Oxford professor of philosophy William MacAskill about Effective Altrusim & how to maximize our positive global impact.

When the next natural disaster strikes, Will MacAskill does not want you to donate to the relief effort. And if a relative dies from a disease, he doesn’t think you should try and raise money for that cause. Rather, he wants you to focus on the "ongoing disasters" that sicken, maim and kill thousands of people every day, mostly in the developing world.

From the founder of the Climate Outreach and Information Network, a groundbreaking take on the most urgent question of our time: Why, despite overwhelming scientific evidence, do we still ignore climate change? “Please read this book, and think about it.” --Bill NyeMost of us recognize that climate change is real, and yet we do nothing to stop it. What is this psychological mechanism that allows us to know something is true but act as if it is not? George Marshall's search for the answers brings him face to face with Nobel Prize-winning psychologists and the activists of the Texas Tea Party; the world's leading climate scientists and the people who denounce them; liberal environmentalists and conservative evangelicals. What he discovered is that our values, assumptions, and prejudices can take on lives of their own, gaining authority as they are shared, dividing people in their wake. With engaging stories and drawing on years of his own research, Marshall argues that the answers do not lie in the things that make us different and drive us apart, but rather in what we all share: how our human brains are wired-our evolutionary origins, our perceptions of threats, our cognitive blindspots, our love of storytelling, our fear of death, and our deepest instincts to defend our family and tribe. Once we understand what excites, threatens, and motivates us, we can rethink and reimagine climate change, for it is not an impossible problem. Rather, it is one we can halt if we can make it our common purpose and common ground. Silence and inaction are the most persuasive of narratives, so we need to change the story. In the end, Don't Even Think About It is both about climate change and about the qualities that make us human and how we can grow as we deal with the greatest challenge we have ever faced.

During the past decade, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) aiming at relapse prevention in depression has been developed and empirically tested. All exercises taught during MBCT are based on the development of a heightened awareness of one's body. The important role of the body is also stressed in a recently emerging interdisciplinary field of research termed ‘embodiment.’ This research program focuses on the interactions between bodily, cognitive, and emotional processes. Based on the obvious role of the body in MBCT and on the theoretical and empirical evidence highlighting the role of the body in emotional processes, we argue that considering embodied processes might be a useful perspective for research on the etiology of depression and for mechanisms of action in MBCT.

Exercise is important for HIV-positive people, but what type of exercise to use is still under debate in the scientific community. Scientific studies found that aerobic exercise increases CD4 counts. Scientists recommend aerobics at any stage of HIV infection. Start at an easy intensity level and do not disrupt the routine; stopping can suppress the immune system. Intensive exercise can also be immunosuppressive. Some cases of AIDS-wasting syndrome have been reversed using weight training and vitamins, antioxidants, or anabolic steroids. Some trainers believe that all cases of wasting can be reversed by this regime, as long as diarrhea is controlled and fever is not present. Aerobic exercise can actually be detrimental to HIV-positive patients because it increases the stress hormone, cortisol, which destroys muscle mass. Stretching exercises, such as yoga and tai chi, can reduce levels of cortisol. Another personal trainer advocates the use of anabolic steroids for HIV-positive people. Injectable steroids used with exercise work best, but exercise alone can also be beneficial for fighting depression, AIDS-related wasting, and high blood pressure. An unpublished scientific study found a temporary drop in neutrophils and monocytes, two kinds of white blood cells, after aerobic exercise. These scientists still recommend moderate exercise done at an individual pace.

Anxiety is an epidemic in our modern world. But studies now show there is a direct link between anxiety and how you respond to emotions. Don’t Let Your Anxiety Run Your Life provides a groundbreaking, step-by-step guide for managing the thoughts and feelings that cause anxiety, worry, fear, and panic.Are your emotions causing you anxiety? Emotions can be quite beneficial—they help us communicate with others, and are deeply connected to special and important memories in our lives. But sometimes, emotions can have unwanted consequences, especially when they cause us fear or anxiety. Studies now show a direct link between emotion regulation and anxiety. Based in the latest research from a Yale University psychologist and professor, the simple yet powerful mindfulness tips in this book will help you stay calm, collected, and make significant improvements in your everyday life, whether at work, at home, or in your relationships. This is the first book to present an integrated model of mindfulness and emotion regulation—both clinically proven for reducing anxiety symptoms. Using these easy mindfulness practices, you’ll learn to manage your emotions and lessen your anxiety, leading to improvements in your social life, work obligations, and family responsibilities.

Let's face it: life gives you plenty of reasons to get angry, sad, scared, and frustrated-and those feelings are okay. But sometimes it can feel like your emotions are taking over, spinning out of control with a mind of their own. To make matters worse, these overwhelming emotions might be interfering with school, causing trouble in your relationships, and preventing you from living a happier life.Don't Let Your Emotions Run Your Life for Teens is a workbook that can help. In this book, you'll find new ways of managing your feelings so that you'll be ready to handle anything life sends your way. Based in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a type of therapy designed to help people who have a hard time handling their intense emotions, this workbook helps you learn the skills you need to ride the ups and downs of life with grace and confidence.

Let's face it: life gives you plenty of reasons to get angry, sad, scared, and frustrated-and those feelings are okay. But sometimes it can feel like your emotions are taking over, spinning out of control with a mind of their own. To make matters worse, these overwhelming emotions might be interfering with school, causing trouble in your relationships, and preventing you from living a happier life.Don't Let Your Emotions Run Your Life for Teens is a workbook that can help. In this book, you'll find new ways of managing your feelings so that you'll be ready to handle anything life sends your way. Based in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a type of therapy designed to help people who have a hard time handling their intense emotions, this workbook helps you learn the skills you need to ride the ups and downs of life with grace and confidence.

Pseudoneglect is traditionally viewed as reflecting right hemisphere specialization for processing spatial information, resulting in orienting toward the contralateral, left, hemispace. Recent evidence suggests that healthy individuals differ from each other in both direction and magnitude of orienting bias, and moreover, the bias displayed by a person is consistent across time, suggesting that it may represent a trait of the individual. Animal studies reveal consistent orienting bias within an individual, which reflects asymmetry in dopaminergic brain systems. We measured basal D2-like receptor binding using positron emission tomography and the high-affinity ligand [F-18]fallypride, to test the hypothesis that asymmetry in dopaminergic neurotransmission in healthy humans modulates the orienting bias in humans. As predicted, we found that individual differences in the direction and magnitude of the orienting bias were strongly associated with the pattern of asymmetric binding of dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in the striatum, as well as clusters in the frontal and temporal cortex. These findings show for the first time that orienting bias reflects individual differences in the lateralization of DA systems in the healthy human brain.
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Abstract, This article reviews data that have accumulated since the early 1970s on the role of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN) in neuroendocrine and autonomic homeostasis. Both the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) project to the DMN, which in turn projects to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), thus placing the DMN at an important nodal point of neuroendocrine/autonomic circuitries. The DMN is composed of cells and fibers containing neuropeptide Y (NPY), and the nutritional status (starvation-refeeding) is reflected in NPY levels of both VMN and DMN in Sprague-Dawley, Zucker (fa/fa), and corpulent rats (cp/cp JCR:LA). The DMN is involved in the final common pathway of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion by the PVN, sympathetic nervous system outflow to the adrenal gland, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. The DMN is also part of a “fear circuitry” regulating cardiovascular responses to stress such as myocardial blood flow and the tachycardia associated with the defense reaction. This appears to be mediated by a gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) mechanism. Although exhibiting reduced ponderal and linear growth and hypophagia and hypodipsia, the rat with DMN lesions (DMNL rat) has normal body composition, anabolic hormone levels, and intermediary metabolism, and it responds normally to numerous endocrine, nutritional, intra- and extracellular thirst and body weight-regulatory challenges. The DMNL rat shows normal efficiency of food utilization, but shows an attenuated response to the feeding-stimulatory effect of insulin. The only other lesion-induced abnormalities are hyperprolactinemia and a disrupted circadian corticosterone rhythm. The hyperprolactinemia in DMNL rats appears to be related to an attenuation of dopamine (DA). Rats with DMNL are capable of mating and can bear offspring, but there is a dramatic effect on litter size and other litter parameters that only improves when one parent is a DMNL rat. Antiaging effects produced by DMNL are evident in the prevention of age-associated microalbuminuria and kidney lesions, as well as, in prevention of the age-related decline in circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Recent evidence suggests that DMN, together with the VMN and the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, may be part of the circuitry that is responsive to the feedback signal from adipose tissue by the hormone leptin. The above findings and others suggest that the DMN plays a diverse role in physiological regulatory processes.

A number of studies have documented a normative decline in academic achievement across the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school. The current study examined the effectiveness of varying levels of a social-emotional learning intervention, "Talking with TJ," in limiting achievement loss across transition. Data were gathered on 154 students during their fifth and sixth grade years in an urban, low socio-economic school district. Students participated in the "Talking with TJ" program over their fifth grade years, and curriculum fidelity in individual classrooms was evaluated. Changes in grade point average were assessed across the middle school transition. Overall, students showed a significant decline in GPA across the transition. Students in classrooms where higher dosages of intervention were delivered showed significantly smaller drops in GPA across transition than did students in lower dosage classrooms. Data on differential program effectiveness among demographic groups and along varying levels of baseline emotional intelligence also are presented. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors present promising findings for a school transition program, link dosage to effects, and raise interesting theoretical questions about the relationships between social-emotional learning and academic growth and achievement.

Background: Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting beta(2) agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non-specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. Methods: After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Results: Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p 0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Conclusion: Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non-specific upper body exercises.

Today more than three quarters of a billion people go hungry in a world where food is plentiful. A distinguished scientist here sets out an agenda for addressing this situation. Initially published in 1997 in the United Kingdom, the book is now available in the first edition produced for the Western hemisphere. In it, the author has updated information to reflect current economic indicators. This volume includes a foreword written for the previous edition by Ismail Serageldin of the World Bank.The original Green Revolution produced new technologies for farmers, creating food abundance. A second transformation of agriculture is now required—specifically, Gordon Conway argues, a "doubly green" revolution that stresses conservation as well as productivity. He calls for researchers and farmers to forge genuine partnerships in an effort to design better plants and animals. He also urges them to develop (or rediscover) alternatives to inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, improve soil and water management, and enhance earning opportunities for the poor, especially women.

The ‘Anthropocene’ is now being used as a conceptual frame by different communities and in a variety of contexts to understand the evolving human–environment relationship. However, as we argue in this paper, the notion of an Anthropos, or ‘humanity’, as global, unified ‘geological force’ threatens to mask the diversity and differences in the actual conditions and impacts of humankind, and does not do justice to the diversity of local and regional contexts. For this reason, we interpret in this article the notion of an Anthropocene in a more context-dependent, localized and social understanding. We do this through illustrating examples from four issue domains, selected for their variation in terms of spatial and temporal scale, systems of governance and functional interdependencies: nitrogen cycle distortion (in particular as it relates to food security); ocean acidification; urbanization; and wildfires. Based on this analysis, we systematically address the consequences of the lens of the Anthropocene for the governance of social-ecological systems, focusing on the multi-level, functional and sectoral organization of governance, and possible redefinitions of governance systems and policy domains. We conclude that the notion of the Anthropocene, once seen in light of social inequalities and regional differences, allows for novel analysis of issue-based problems in the context of a global understanding, in both academic and political terms. This makes it a useful concept to help leverage and (re-)focus our efforts in a more innovative and effective way to transition towards sustainability.

The present ecological mutation has organized the whole political landscape for the last thirty years. This could explain the deadly cocktail of exploding inequalities, massive deregulation, and conversion of the dream of globalization into a nightmare for most people.What holds these three phenomena together is the conviction, shared by some powerful people, that the ecological threat is real and that the only way for them to survive is to abandon any pretense at sharing a common future with the rest of the world. Hence their flight offshore and their massive investment in climate change denial. The Left has been extremely slow to turn its attention to this new situation. It is still organized along an axis that goes from investment in local values to the hope of globalization—and just at the time when, everywhere, people dissatisfied with the ideal of modernity are turning back to the protection of national or even ethnic borders. This is why it is urgent to shift sideways and to define politics as what leads toward the Earth and not toward the global or the national. Belonging to a territory is the phenomenon most in need of rethinking and careful redescription; learning new ways to inhabit the Earth is our biggest challenge. Bringing us down to earth is the task of politics today.

Practiced by millions in China to release stress and maintain robust health, Dragon and Tiger qigong is also used to help prevent and heal cancer and to mitigate the effects of radiation and chemotherapy. Frantzis chose Dragon and Tiger from among several hundred sets he researched because its seven simple movements are easy to learn and offer about 80 percent of the health benefits found in the more complex sets of 50–100 movements.Dragon and Tiger qigong uses simple body movements to accomplish the same chi balancing as acupuncture. Each movement is designed to stimulate not just a single meridian but groups of meridians. In Chinese medicine, the tiger is a metaphor for a strong, healthy liver and powerful muscles, and the dragon is a metaphor for healthy and strong lungs. The Dragon and Tiger form accomplishes three major changes in the body necessary for healing: it releases stagnant chi energy; increases the speed, strength, and evenness of the circulation of chi, blood, and other fluids; and quickly raises the body's energy levels to boost its natural healing capacities. With over 150 illustrations accompanying clear, thorough instructions, Dragon and Tiger Medical Qigong offers an accessible and effective path to health and healing.

In the late 20th century, scientists began to warn the public that human activity had begun to change planetary systems. Some have thus named the current geological epoch the Anthropocene, a period in which humans are degrading natural systems. This damage occurs in part because we have not come to terms with the dual character of human nature-being both inside and outside nature. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; Copyright of American Journal of Economics & Sociology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Drawdown maps, measures, models, and describes the 100 most substantive solutions to global warming. For each solution, we describe its history, the carbon impact it provides, the relative cost and savings, the path to adoption, and how it works. The goal of the research that informs Drawdown is to determine if we can reverse the buildup of atmospheric carbon within thirty years. All solutions modeled are already in place, well understood, analyzed based on peer-reviewed science, and are expanding around the world.

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