Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation. For this study, a total of 384 undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Using Correlational analysis, results revealed that there was a significant relationship between academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness. However, using SPSS mediational analysis, mindfulness did not prove the mediator role in the study.
The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.Humans are causing a massive animal extinction without precedent in 65 million years. Humans are causing a massive animal extinction without precedent in 65 million years.
Research indicates that the culturally responsive teaching strategies outlined in this book accelerate literacy, language development, and academic growth for students in grades K-8, particularly for English language learners. Completely revised and updated, this bestselling resource speaks to the social-emotional needs of learners and helps teachers support each child's development of a positive self-concept. The authors present best practices, aligned with reading and content standards, and tools for developing academic talk and instructional conversations in the classroom. Special emphasis is placed on using student culture and language as a means for promoting meaningful relationships among communities of learners. The text includes tips for using the strategies for parental involvement, gathering knowledge of the student's background, and promoting social-emotional learning. A companion website provides new video of the strategies being used in classrooms. Book features include: (1) Connections to ELP standards and skills with emphasis on processes that foster reading, writing, and comprehension skills; (2) Guidance to help teachers move beyond static grouping structures and instead utilize responsive opportunities for collaboration and instructional conversations to introduce, rehearse, and review content; (3) Technology connections that help teachers maximize the strategies as systematic learning tools for students; (4) Detailed steps and instructional tips for strategy implementation; and (5) Access to teacher-in-action video clips that demonstrate key strategies in practice. [Foreword by Ester J. de Jong.]
We present findings on the (1) acceptability of Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) therapy with Puerto Rican women and (2) fit with women's cultural, gender, literacy, clinical, and religious backgrounds. 3-S is a well-documented efficacious intervention for substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants were 13 urban, low-income Puerto Rican women in a residential treatment program in a large Northeastern city.Findings from therapy session videotapes, focus groups, and clinician memos indicate high acceptability and fit of 3-S therapy for Puerto Rican women. However, lack of fit in several areas indicates the need for modification of specific aspects of 3-S for Latinas.
Based on promising results with adults, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) presents as a treatment opportunity for depressed adolescents. We present a pilot study that compares ACT with treatment as usual (TAU), using random allocation of participants who were clinically referred to a psychiatric outpatient service. Participants were 30 adolescents, aged M = 14.9 (SD = 2.55), with 73.6% in the clinical range for depression. At posttreatment on measures of depression participants in the ACT condition showed significantly greater improvement statistically (d = 0.38), and 58% showed clinically reliable change with a response ratio of 1.59 in favor of ACT. Outcomes from 3-month follow-up data are tentative due to small numbers but suggest that improvement increased in magnitude. Measures of global functioning showed statistically significant improvement for both conditions, although clinical change measures favored only the ACT condition. The results support conducting a larger trial of ACT for the treatment of adolescent depression.
In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological flexibility. We explain the definition of mindfulness that guides our treatment, and we outline a typology of mindfulness states and show how many of the techniques in our treatment can be analyzed by these categories. We argue that acceptance and mindfulness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations for several reasons. These include their increasing psychological flexibility, decreasing somatic distress, decreasing rumination, serving as emotion regulation techniques, decreasing the attentional bias to threat, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode (which in CA-CBT centers on psychological flexibility). We describe the specific ways we teach acceptance and mindfulness with Latino and Southeast Asian refugee populations and present case examples of the treatment of a traumatized Latino and Cambodian patient.
Traditional expressive writing (EW) and EW augmented by emotion-acceptance instructions (EWEA) were compared to non-emotional control writing for their ability to forestall depression symptoms in undergraduates with high or low initial levels of depression symptomatology. EWEA instructions encouraged participants to take a more accepting, “emotion friendly” approach toward expressive writing, stressing the importance of “staying present” with difficult emotional experiences non-judgmentally and with openness. Writing condition interacted significantly with initial depression such that at the 5-week posttest, EWEA was more beneficial than control writing for participants with low to mild initial depression symptoms (CESD <17) and EW was more beneficial than control writing for participants with very low initial depression symptoms (CESD <8). But for the EW condition, this effect was reversed such that participants in this condition with high initial depression (CESD >26) fared worse at posttest than those in the control group.
This longitudinal study used psychological process measures derived from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Cognitive Therapy (CT) models to prospectively predict depression and quality of life. Participants included 93 K-12 education employees who repeatedly completed surveys over the course of 4 months. Both the ACT and CT regression models were predictive of depressive symptoms after controlling for baseline depression. These models differed in their success at predicting life quality over time. In the CT models, only automatic thought frequency had predictive value while dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive reappraisal did not make unique contributions. In the ACT models, both psychological flexibility and present moment awareness made unique contributions while thought believability did not contribute. The role of awareness was moderated by psychological flexibility, suggesting that present moment sensitivity can either be a strength or a weakness depending upon one's level of openness to experience. Strengths and weaknesses of both the ACT and CT models are noted, as areas for future research.
Given that unwanted thoughts are enhanced when suppressed, we tested among college freshmen who were about to take an academic exam if an acceptance strategy consisting of not suppressing intrusive thoughts will improve test performance. This strategy proved superior to students’ own default strategies as much as a modified, alternative strategy, avoiding the antecedents of intrusive thoughts. Moreover, the combination of the two strategies counteracted a stronger, negative effect of test anxiety on test performance as compared with each strategy used alone. The results suggest that not only intrusive thoughts per se but also the suppression of these thoughts can disrupt test performance, and hint that approaching such thoughts with acceptance may not interfere with simultaneously working toward avoiding the antecedents of these thoughts.
BACKGROUND:Depression affects as many as one in five people in their lifetime and often runs a recurrent lifetime course. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an effective psychosocial approach that aims to help people at risk of depressive relapse to learn skills to stay well. However, there is an ‘implementation cliff’: access to those who could benefit from MBCT is variable and little is known about why that is the case, and how to promote sustainable implementation. As such, this study fills a gap in the literature about the implementation of MBCT.
One of society’s greatest challenges is to sustain natural resources while promoting economic growth and quality of life. In the face of this challenge, society must measure the effectiveness of programs established to safeguard the environment. The impetus for demonstrating positive results from government-sponsored research and regulation in the United States comes from Congress (General Accountability Office; GAO) and the Executive Branch (Office of Management and Budget; OMB). The message is: regulatory and research programs must demonstrate outcomes that justify their costs. Although the concept is simple, it is a complex problem to demonstrate that environmental research, policies, and regulations cause measurable changes in environmental quality. Even where changes in environmental quality can be tracked reliably, the connections between government actions and environmental outcomes seldom are direct or straightforward. In this article, we describe emerging efforts (with emphasis on the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA) to frame and measure environmental outcomes in terms of ecosystem services and values—societally and ecologically meaningful metrics for gauging how well we manage environmental resources. As examples of accounting for outcomes and values, we present a novel, low-cost method for determining relative values of multiple ecosystem services, and describe emerging research on indicators of human well-being.
The hippocampus and cerebral neocortex receive massive cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain. These projections arise predominantly within the nucleus basalis of Meynert, also known as the Ch4 cell group. The cholinergic projection of the cerebral cortex plays a major role in sustaining episodic memory, attention, and experience-induced neuroplasticity. Progressive neurofibrillary degeneration in the nucleus basalis can be seen throughout the continuum that leads from normal aging to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. The resultant perturbation of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission may contribute to the cognitive changes seen in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease.
This article introduces The RULER Approach ("RULER") to social and emotional learning, with a particular focus on its Feeling Words Curriculum. Through this curriculum, RULER contributes to the ultimate goals of an English language arts education--preparing students to achieve personal, social, and academic goals and to be engaged and contributing citizens. RULER complements the English language arts curriculum and draws on national learning standards to develop language skills in reading, writing, listening, speaking, and visually representing information. This article describes how RULER simultaneously reinforces student learning in the English language arts and develops 5 critical emotion skills--recognizing, understanding, labeling, expressing, and regulating emotion. (Contains 1 figure, 1 footnote, and 2 tables.)
Website of the Association for Contemplative Mind in Higher Education. The website includes a bibliography related to contemplative practice and contemplative education, including several papers written by fellows of the Association available as PDFs on the website.
To gain insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in Zen meditation, we evaluated the effects of focused attention (FA) on breathing movements in the lower abdomen (Tanden) in novices. We investigated hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an attention-related brain region, using 24-channel near-infrared spectroscopy during a 20-minute session of FA on Tanden breathing in 15 healthy volunteers. We found that the level of oxygenated hemoglobin in the anterior PFC was significantly increased during FA on Tanden breathing, accompanied by a reduction in feelings of negative mood compared to before the meditation session. Electroencephalography (EEG) revealed increased alpha band activity and decreased theta band activity during and after FA on Tanden breathing. EEG changes were correlated with a significant increase in whole blood serotonin (5-HT) levels. These results suggest that activation of the anterior PFC and 5-HT system may be responsible for the improvement of negative mood and EEG signal changes observed during FA on Tanden breathing.
The challenges we face can be difficult even to think about. Climate change, the depletion of oil, economic upheaval, and mass extinction together create a planetary emergency of overwhelming proportions. Active Hope shows us how to strengthen our capacity to face this crisis so that we can respond with unexpected resilience and creative power. Drawing on decades of teaching an empowerment approach known as the Work That Reconnects, the authors guide us through a transformational process informed by mythic journeys, modern psychology, spirituality, and holistic science. This process equips us with tools to face the mess we’re in and play our role in the collective transition, or Great Turning, to a life-sustaining society.
This book provides descriptions of 76 engaging activities that can be used to teach children, adolescents, and adults valuable social, emotional, and problem-solving skills. Some of the skills taught include identifying and expressing one's own emotions, identifying emotions in others, coping with stressors, making and keeping friends, setting goals, and solving real-life problems. The game and challenge aspects of the activities engage the trainee in the activity, while the instructional aspects of the book explain to the trainee how and when to apply a skill in everyday life. The book provides background information on the value of the skills taught by the activities, guidance on how to use the activities to maximum effect, and examples of how various types of trainees reacted to the activities. Counselors, psychotherapists, teachers, and parents can use the activities to facilitate the development of important skills in maladjusted or well-adjusted individuals. Some chapters explore activities that teach: how to identify and talk about emotions; problem-solving skills; and coping methods. Other chapters explore activities that foster: self-confidence; a positive outlook; value clarification, goal setting, and planning; persistence, and enhancing social skills. Commercial Games are appended. A list of references and an index conclude the book. A foreword by Rhea Zakich is also included.
"Hundreds of user-friendly lesson plans help teachers build attitudes of respect and caring, reduce problem behaviors, empower students to solve problems, and educate the whole child socially, emotionally, and academically. The lessons' literature-based connections allow teachers to "build in" rather than "add on" social-emotional learning (SEL) as part of the daily curriculum. Each resource guide offers: - Monthly themes focused on emotions, empathy, relationships, conflict resolution, bullying prevention, problem solving, decision making, teamwork, and self-esteem - Literature-based lessons with curriculum integrations for using the lessons as part of language arts, social studies, science, math, art, and music - Easy-to-implement lesson formats