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Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training outside of the classroom, and did not report longer-term effects. The immediate and longer-term effects of a class-based mindfulness intervention for elementary school children were investigated as a primary prevention program (MindfulKids) to reduce stress and stress-related mental health and behavioral problems. Children (8–12 years) from three elementary schools participated. Classes were randomized to an immediate-intervention group (N = 95) or a waitlist-control group (N = 104), which received the intervention after a waitlist period. Twelve 30-min sessions were delivered in 6 weeks. At baseline, pretest, posttest, and follow-up, variables indicative of stress and metal well-being were assessed with children, variables indicative of mental health problems were assessed with parents, and teachers reported on class climate. Multilevel analysis revealed that there were no significant changes from baseline to pretest. Some primary prevention effects on stress and well-being were found directly after training and some became more apparent at follow-up. Effects on mental health problems also became apparent at follow-up. MindfulKids seems to have a primary preventive effect on stress, well-being, and behavior in schoolchildren, as reported by children and parents. Exploratory analysis revealed that children who ruminate more are affected differently by the intervention than children who ruminate less. It is concluded that mindfulness training can be incorporated in elementary schools at the class level, letting all children benefit from the intervention.

Objective: Perseverative cognition (e.g. worry) and unconscious stress are suggested to be important mediators in the relation between stressors and physiological health. We examined whether a smartphone-based worry-reduction training improved a physiological marker of stress (i.e. increased heart rate variability [HRV]) and unconscious stress.Design: Randomised-controlled trial was conducted with individuals reporting work stress (n = 136). Participants were randomised to the experimental, control or waitlist condition (resp. EC, CC, WL). The EC and CC registered emotions five times daily for four weeks. The EC additionally received a worry-reduction training with mindfulness exercises. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was 24-h assessments of HRV measured at pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were implicit affect and stress. Effects on heart rate and other psychological outcomes were explored. Results: A total of 118 participants completed the study. No change from pre- to post-intervention was observed for the primary or secondary outcomes. The change over time was not different between conditions. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the training was ineffective for improving HRV or psychological stress. Future studies may focus on alternative smartphone-based stress interventions, as stress levels are high in society. There is need for easy interventions and smartphones offer possibilities for this.

This study examined the effectiveness of a stress coping program based on mindfulness meditation on the stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by nursing students in Korea. A nonequivalent, control group, pre-posttest design was used. A convenience sample of 41 nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental (n=21) and control groups (n=20). Stress was measured with the PWI-SF (5-point) developed by Chang. Anxiety was measured with Spieberger's state anxiety inventory. Depression was measured with the Beck depression inventory. The experimental group attended 90-min sessions for eight weeks. No intervention was administered to the control group. Nine participants were excluded from the analysis because they did not complete the study due to personal circumstances, resulting in 16 participants in each group for the final analysis. Results for the two groups showed (1) a significant difference in stress scores (F=6.145, p=0.020), (2) a significant difference in anxiety scores (F=6.985, p=0.013), and (3) no significant difference in depression scores (t=1.986, p=0.056). A stress coping program based on mindfulness meditation was an effective intervention for nursing students to decrease their stress and anxiety, and could be used to manage stress in student nurses. In the future, long-term studies should be pursued to standardize and detail the program, with particular emphasis on studies to confirm the effects of the program in patients with diseases, such as cancer.

This study examined the effectiveness of a stress coping program based on mindfulness meditation on the stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by nursing students in Korea. A nonequivalent, control group, pre-posttest design was used. A convenience sample of 41 nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental (n=21) and control groups (n=20). Stress was measured with the PWI-SF (5-point) developed by Chang. Anxiety was measured with Spieberger's state anxiety inventory. Depression was measured with the Beck depression inventory. The experimental group attended 90-min sessions for eight weeks. No intervention was administered to the control group. Nine participants were excluded from the analysis because they did not complete the study due to personal circumstances, resulting in 16 participants in each group for the final analysis. Results for the two groups showed (1) a significant difference in stress scores (F=6.145, p=0.020), (2) a significant difference in anxiety scores (F=6.985, p=0.013), and (3) no significant difference in depression scores (t=1.986, p=0.056). A stress coping program based on mindfulness meditation was an effective intervention for nursing students to decrease their stress and anxiety, and could be used to manage stress in student nurses. In the future, long-term studies should be pursued to standardize and detail the program, with particular emphasis on studies to confirm the effects of the program in patients with diseases, such as cancer.

PurposeThis paper evaluates the effectiveness of a 3-month Tai chi Qigong (TCQ) program in promoting the psychosocial functional health of clients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Hong Kong.MethodsThis study employed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and six COPD clients were randomly assigned into three groups, namely, TCQ group, exercise group, and control group. Subjects in the TCQ group received a TCQ program, consisting of two 60-min sessions each week for 3 months. Subjects in the exercise group were taught to practice breathing techniques combined with walking as an exercise. Subjects in the control group received their usual care. Data collections were performed at baseline, on the sixth week and on the third month. The primary outcomes were health-related quality of life using St. George Respiratory Questionnaire-Hong Kong Chinese version and perceived social support using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support-Chinese version.ResultsThe TCQ group showed greater improvements in the symptom (F 4, 404 = 3.351, P = 0.010) and activity domains (F 4, 404 = 2.611, P = 0.035). No differences were detected in perceived social support among the three groups.ConclusionsTai chi Qigong promoted health outcomes with respect to clients’ perception of their respiratory symptoms. Moreover, TCQ decreased disturbances to their physical activities.

Given the current necessity of retaining qualified nurses, a self-care program consisting of Yoga, Tai Chi, Meditation classes, and Reiki healing sessions was designed for a university-based hospital. The effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated using self-care journals and analyzed using a Heideggerian phenomenological approach. Outcomes of the self-care classes described by nurses included: (a) noticing sensations of warmth, tingling, and pulsation which were relaxing, (b) becoming aware of an enhanced problem solving ability, and (c) noticing an increased ability to focus on patient needs. Hospitals willing to invest in self-care options for nurses can anticipate patient and work related benefits.

BACKGROUND:An increasing number of studies are investigating traditional meditation retreats. Very little, however, is known about their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of meditation retreats on improving psychological outcomes in general population. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of studies published in journals or as dissertations in PSYCINFO, PUBMED, CINAHL or Web of Science from the first available date until October 22, 2016. REVIEW METHODS: A total of 20 papers (21 studies, N=2912) were included. RESULTS: Effect-size estimates of outcomes combined suggested that traditional meditation retreats are moderately effective in pre-post analyses (n=19; Hedge's g=0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.54], p<0.00001) and in analyses comparing retreats to controls (n=14; Hedge's g=0.49; 95% CI [0.36, 0.61], p<0.00001). Results were maintained at follow-up. No differences were observed between meditation styles. Results suggested large effects on measures of anxiety, depression and stress, and moderate effects on measures of emotional regulation and quality of life. As to potential mechanisms of actions, results showed large effects on measures of mindfulness and compassion, and moderate effects on measures of acceptance. In addition, changes in mindfulness levels strongly moderated clinical effect sizes. However, heterogeneity was significant among trials, probably due to differences in study designs, types and duration of the retreats and assessed outcomes, limiting therefore the implications of the results. CONCLUSION: Meditation retreats are moderately to largely effective in reducing depression, anxiety, stress and in ameliorating the quality of life of participants.

OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates the effects of an 8-week yoga program with educational intervention compared with an informational pamphlet on disability, anxiety, depression, and pain, in people affected by chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Thirty individuals (age 34.2+/-4.52yrs) with CLBP were randomly assigned into a Yoga Group (YG, n=15) and a Pamphlet Group (PG, n=15). The YG participated in an 8-week (2 days per week) yoga program which included education on spine anatomy/biomechanics and the management of CLBP. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Monitoring response to intervention, the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI-I), Zung self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS 0-10) were used to collect data. RESULTS: After intervention, the YG showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean score in all assessed variables when compared with baseline data. In addition, statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were observed among groups at the end of intervention in depression, anxiety, and pain, but not in disability. CONCLUSIONS: The yoga program and education together appear to be effective in reducing depression and anxiety, which can affect perception of pain.

OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates the effects of an 8-week yoga program with educational intervention compared with an informational pamphlet on disability, anxiety, depression, and pain, in people affected by chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Thirty individuals (age 34.2+/-4.52yrs) with CLBP were randomly assigned into a Yoga Group (YG, n=15) and a Pamphlet Group (PG, n=15). The YG participated in an 8-week (2 days per week) yoga program which included education on spine anatomy/biomechanics and the management of CLBP. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Monitoring response to intervention, the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI-I), Zung self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS 0-10) were used to collect data. RESULTS: After intervention, the YG showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean score in all assessed variables when compared with baseline data. In addition, statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were observed among groups at the end of intervention in depression, anxiety, and pain, but not in disability. CONCLUSIONS: The yoga program and education together appear to be effective in reducing depression and anxiety, which can affect perception of pain.

BACKGROUND: Yoga, a popular mind-body practice, may produce changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome risk factors. DESIGN: This was a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were performed for systematic reviews and RCTs through December 2013. Studies were included if they were English, peer-reviewed, focused on asana-based yoga in adults, and reported relevant outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected articles and assessed quality using Cochrane's Risk of Bias tool. RESULTS: Out of 1404 records, 37 RCTs were included in the systematic review and 32 in the meta-analysis. Compared to non-exercise controls, yoga showed significant improvement for body mass index (-0.77 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval -1.09 to -0.44)), systolic blood pressure (-5.21 mmHg (-8.01 to -2.42)), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-12.14 mg/dl (-21.80 to -2.48)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.20 mg/dl (1.86 to 4.54)). Significant changes were seen in body weight (-2.32 kg (-4.33 to -0.37)), diastolic blood pressure (-4.98 mmHg (-7.17 to -2.80)), total cholesterol (-18.48 mg/dl (-29.16 to -7.80)), triglycerides (-25.89 mg/dl (-36.19 to -15.60), and heart rate (-5.27 beats/min (-9.55 to -1.00)), but not fasting blood glucose (-5.91 mg/dl (-16.32 to 4.50)) nor glycosylated hemoglobin (-0.06% Hb (-0.24 to 0.11)). No significant difference was found between yoga and exercise. One study found an impact on smoking abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: There is promising evidence of yoga on improving cardio-metabolic health. Findings are limited by small trial sample sizes, heterogeneity, and moderate quality of RCTs.

Many people today are unhappy and isolated resulting in alarming rates of depression, mental illness, suicide, and violence. Despite the substantial research documenting the benefits of social emotional learning (SEL), there are problems with the current implementation of SEL programs in schools. A lack of authenticity is one major problem, as many SEL programs do not reflect the individual school or classroom culture to teach SEL in context-specific ways that resonate with students. Furthermore, there is a lack of qualitative studies that actually describe what effective SEL looks like in practice, especially in school settings with a racially and economically diverse student population. The specific aims of this study are to understand: (1) how effective SEL programs are delivered and integrated into classroom lessons and the conditions in which these practices are occurring; (2) the impact of SEL on students by exploring their perspectives; (3) how teachers adapt formal SEL programming to be more personally meaningful to students and fit their classroom culture, while maintaining program fidelity and school-wide coherence; and (4) the extent to which effective SEL programming reflects the C5 for Action Framework.

School discipline is an ongoing area of concern, as keeping children in school and engaged in learning is required not only for their well-being, but also for that of society. In response to the failure of zero-tolerance policies and to the passing of Illinois Senate Bill 100, which restricts disciplinary action that remove students from school, XYZ Middle School is adopting a restorative justice model of school discipline. This model, based on Social Emotional Learning (SEL), is projected to reduce suspensions and address the racial disparity existing in disciplinary practices at the school. Combining SEL and restorative justice practices will change the culture of the school through staff training, family involvement, and the creation of a new restorative justice coordinator position.

This case series describes the impact of various forms of exercise on symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A group of 15 women and men performed one of the following: traditional stretching and strengthening exercises, Iyengar yoga, or no structured group exercise. Low back and hamstring flexibility and quadriceps strength and function were monitored before and after the program. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was used to assess subjective change after the six-week intervention period. A global assessment questionnaire was also completed by each participant and each instructor at the exit sessions to measure perceived changes in improvements since the initiation of the intervention. This study found functional changes and improvement in quality of life in traditional exercise and a yoga based approach that should encourage further comprehensive and carefully designed studies of yoga in osteoarthritis.

Purpose: To examine the effect of regular Iyengar yoga practice on measures of self-perceived psychosocial function and diurnal salivary cortisol secretion in stage II-IV breast cancer survivors (n = 18). Data sources: Women were randomly assigned to attend yoga practice for 90 min twice weekly for 8 weeks (n = 9) or to a wait-listed, noninterventional control group (n = 9). Traditional Iyengar yoga routines that progressively increased in difficulty as participants gained strength and flexibility were used. At baseline and after the 8-week study period, women completed self-report instruments to document various aspects of psychosocial and physical functioning, and collected salivary samples for cortisol analysis four times during the day for two consecutive days. Conclusions: The yoga group had lower morning and 5 p.m. salivary cortisol and improved emotional well-being and fatigue scores. Implications for practice: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for chronic psychosocial distress that may alter activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in aberrant regulation of cortisol secretion and increased risk of immune dysfunction and cancer progression. Regular yoga practice may be a low-risk, cost-effective way to improve psychosocial functioning, fatigue, and regulation of cortisol secretion in breast cancer survivors. These findings require validation with a larger randomized study.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of regular Iyengar yoga practice on measures of self-perceived psychosocial function and diurnal salivary cortisol secretion in stage II-IV breast cancer survivors (n = 18).DATA SOURCES: Women were randomly assigned to attend yoga practice for 90 min twice weekly for 8 weeks (n = 9) or to a wait-listed, noninterventional control group (n = 9). Traditional Iyengar yoga routines that progressively increased in difficulty as participants gained strength and flexibility were used. At baseline and after the 8-week study period, women completed self-report instruments to document various aspects of psychosocial and physical functioning, and collected salivary samples for cortisol analysis four times during the day for two consecutive days. CONCLUSIONS: The yoga group had lower morning and 5 p.m. salivary cortisol and improved emotional well-being and fatigue scores. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for chronic psychosocial distress that may alter activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in aberrant regulation of cortisol secretion and increased risk of immune dysfunction and cancer progression. Regular yoga practice may be a low-risk, cost-effective way to improve psychosocial functioning, fatigue, and regulation of cortisol secretion in breast cancer survivors. These findings require validation with a larger randomized study.

Objective: Kindness-based meditation (KBM) is a rubric covering meditation techniques developed to elicit kindness in a conscious way. Some techniques, for example, loving-kindness meditation and compassion meditation, have been included in programs aimed at improving health and well-being. Our aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence available from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of KBM on health and well-being against passive and active control groups in patients and the general population. Method: Searches were completed in March 2013. Two reviewers applied predetermined eligibility criteria (RCTs, peer-reviewed publications, theses or conference proceedings, adult participants, KBM interventions) and extracted the data. Meta-analyses used random-effects models. Results: Twenty-two studies were included. KBM was moderately effective in decreasing self-reported depression (standard mean difference [Hedges's g] = -0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.08, -0.14]) and increasing mindfulness (Hedges's g = 0.63, 95% CI [0.22, 1.05]), compassion (Hedges's g = 0.61, 95% CI [0.24, 0.99]) and self-compassion (Hedges's g = 0.45, 95% CI [0.15, 0.75]) against passive controls. Positive emotions were increased (Hedges's g = 0.42, 95% CI [0.10, 0.75]) against progressive relaxation. Exposure to KBM may initially be challenging for some people. RESULTS were inconclusive for some outcomes, in particular against active controls. The methodological quality of the reports was low to moderate. RESULTS suffered from imprecision due to wide CIs deriving from small studies. Conclusions: KBM showed evidence of benefits for the health of individuals and communities through its effects on well-being and social interaction. Further research including well-conducted large RCTs is warranted.

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to examine a Korean Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (K-MBSR) program for middle aged women and to verify the program's effectiveness on stress, stress coping style, depression, anger and sleep. Methods Fifty-two women aged from 40 to 59 (26 in the experimental group and 26 in the control group) from G city participated in the study. Data were collected from February 13 to April 3, 2013. The experimental group received 8 sessions, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting two and a half hours. Outcome variables included stress, stress coping style, depression, anger, sleep and a physiological measure (EEG). Results There were significant decreases for stress (t=-2.14, p=.037), depression (t=-2.64, p=.011), state trait anger (t=-3.79, p<.001) in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion The findings in this study indicate that the K-MBSR program is an effective program to decrease stress, depression, and state trait anger in middle aged women.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of K-MBSR on distraction by stress. Subjects were 13 male and female college student. K-MBSR practiced in 6 students and they were practiced for 8 weeks. The control group were 7 students. All the subjects had pre-test and post-test with PSS, KIMS and ANT. In the results of PSS there was significant interaction effect between time (pre-post) and groups. The meditation group showed a lower level than control group in post. In the results of KIMS there was difference between groups in a subscale, description and interaction effect between time (pre-post) and groups a long with difference in groups and time in subscale, attention. The meditation group showed higher level of attention than control group in post. In ANT results there was interaction effect between groups and time in error numbers. The meditation group showed lower errors than control group and higher performance in receptive attention. The implication for this results were discussed in the final section. (Korean J Str Res 2014;22:231∼240)

CONTEXT: In 2014, laughter yoga (LY) achieved the intermediate level, tier 2, under the Title III-D Evidence-based Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Program through the Administration on Aging (AOA). Further research is needed to qualify LY under the criteria for the highest tier, tier 3, to assure continued funding for LY classes at senior centers. OBJECTIVES: The study intended to demonstrate further the benefits of LY and to qualify LY as tier 3 under Title III-D. DESIGN: Using a quasi-experimental design, the research team conducted a preintervention/postintervention study in 3 phases. SETTING: The study was done in a variety of community centers. Phase 1, a pilot phase, was limited to North Carolina, and phase 2 was conducted in multiple states. Phase 3 was held at the North Carolina Area Agency on Aging's annual Volunteer Appreciation meeting. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in phases 1 (n = 109) and 2 (n = 247) enrolled in LY classes. Classes were advertised by fliers posted in community and in retirement centers. The ability of participants to participate in a class was based solely on their desire to participate, regardless of age, ability, health status, or physical impairment. Phase 3 (n = 23) was a convenience sample only. All phases were voluntary. OUTCOME MEASURE: The pre- and posttests for all 3 phases were Likert-scale surveys, 10 questions on the Psychological Outcomes of Well-being (POWB) survey. Pulse and other physiological measurements were also assessed pre- and postintervention. Analysis included a t test on each of the 10 POWB and physiological measures for all phases. RESULTS: All 10 POWB measures for phases 1 and 2 showed significant improvements between the pre- and postintervention testing (P < .001). Phase 3, the control, showed no significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The initial study demonstrated that LY meets the criteria to qualify for tier 3 under the Title III-D Evidence-based Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Program and that a large number of Americans, regardless of age and physical ability, could benefit from LY.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether laughter yoga (LY), i.e., simulated laughter, alters cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels and cortisol/DHEA (C/D) ratios.METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 120 healthy university students were allocated to experiencing LY, watching a comedy movie (spontaneous laughter), or reading a book. Salivary cortisol and DHEA levels were measured immediately before, immediately after, and 30 min after the intervention. RESULTS: Cortisol levels and C/D ratios significantly decreased by time in the LY and comedy movie groups. Significant group*time interactions were found between these two groups for cortisol levels and C/D ratios. DHEA levels did not change by time in the LY group. CONCLUSIONS: LY decreased cortisol levels and C/D ratios but did not affect DHEA levels. Simulated and spontaneous laughter differently affected the dynamics of cortisol levels and C/D ratios. Effect of spontaneous laughter on the cortisol dynamics lasted longer than that of simulated laughter. (UMIN000019409).

A job satisfaction survey was posted on the Internet and administered to office workers in Texas and the Midwest. The survey included questions regarding job satisfaction, physical work environments, the presence or absence of live interior plants and windows, environmental preferences of the office workers, and demographic information. Approximately 450 completed responses were included in the final sample. Data were analyzed to compare levels of job satisfaction of employees who worked in office spaces with live interior plants or window views of exterior green spaces and employees who worked in office environments without live plants or windows. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found regarding perceptions of overall life quality, overall perceptions of job satisfaction, and in the job satisfaction subcategories of “nature of work,” “supervision,” and “coworkers” among employees who worked in office spaces with live interior plants or window views and those employees who worked in office environments without live plants or windows. Findings indicated that individuals who worked in offices with plants and windows reported that they felt better about their job and the work they performed. This study also provided evidence that those employees who worked in offices that had plants or windows reported higher overall quality-of-life scores. Multivariate analysis of variance comparisons indicated that there were no statistically significant differences among the categories of “age,” “ethnicity,” “salary,” “education levels,” and “position” among employees who worked in offices with or without plants or window views. However, there were gender differences in comparisons of males in that male participants in offices with plants rated job satisfaction statements higher when compared with males working in offices with no plants. No differences were found in comparisons of female respondents

AIM: Breast cancer has become a pandemic with an ever-increasing incidence. Although better diagnostics and treatment modalities have reduced mortality, a large number of survivors face cancer and treatment-related long-term symptoms. Many survivors are taking up yoga for improving the quality of life (QoL). The present study attempts to evaluate predictors of psychological states in breast cancer survivors with long-term yoga experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study recruited early breast cancer survivors, 30-65 years, completing treatment > 6 months before recruitment, and grouped them based on prior yoga experience (BCY, n = 27) or naive (BCN, n = 25). Demography, cancer history, diet, exercise habits, and yoga schedule were collected and tools to assess stress, anxiety, depression, general health, and QoL were administered. Multivariate linear regression was done to identify predictors of psychological variables. RESULTS: BCY had significantly lower stress, anxiety, depression, better general health, and QoL (P < 0.001). Global QoL and trait anxiety were significantly predicted by Yoga practice; depression was predicted by yoga practice, annual income, and sleep quality; state anxiety was predicted by Yoga practice and income; and stress was predicted by Yoga practice and sleep quality. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that breast cancer survivors, doing yoga, have better psychological profiles and are able to deal with demanding situations better. The psycho-oncogenic model of cancer etiology suggests that a better psychological state in survival has the potential to improve prognosis and survival outcomes and Yoga may be a suitable practice for staying cancer-free for a longer time.

While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations.

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