The current study investigated whether a 15min recorded focused breathing induction in a normal, primarily undergraduate population would decrease the intensity and negativity of emotional responses to affectively valenced picture slides and increase willingness to remain in contact with aversive picture slides. The effects of the focused breathing induction were compared with the effects of 15min recorded inductions of unfocused attention and worrying. The focused breathing group maintained consistent, moderately positive responses to the neutral slides before and after the induction, whereas the unfocused attention and worry groups responded significantly more negatively to the neutral slides after the induction than before it. The focusing breathing group also reported lower negative affect and overall emotional volatility in response to the post-induction slides than the worry group, and greater willingness to view highly negative slides than the unfocused attention group. The lower-reported negative and overall affect in response to the final slide blocks, and greater willingness to view optional negative slides by the focused breathing group may be viewed as more adaptive responding to negative stimuli. The results are discussed as being consistent with emotional regulatory properties of mindfulness.
The current study investigated whether a 15 min recorded focused breathing induction in a normal, primarily undergraduate population would decrease the intensity and negativity of emotional responses to affectively valenced picture slides and increase willingness to remain in contact with aversive picture slides. The effects of the focused breathing induction were compared with the effects of 15 min recorded inductions of unfocused attention and worrying. The focused breathing group maintained consistent, moderately positive responses to the neutral slides before and after the induction, whereas the unfocused attention and worry groups responded significantly more negatively to the neutral slides after the induction than before it. The focusing breathing group also reported lower negative affect and overall emotional volatility in response to the post-induction slides than the worry group, and greater willingness to view highly negative slides than the unfocused attention group. The lower-reported negative and overall affect in response to the final slide blocks, and greater willingness to view optional negative slides by the focused breathing group may be viewed as more adaptive responding to negative stimuli. The results are discussed as being consistent with emotional regulatory properties of mindfulness.
Why do more mindful individuals tend to be less depressed? We hypothesized (1) that mindfulness is associated with depressive symptoms both via the path of lower levels of rumination and higher levels of self-compassion and (2) that the path via self-compassion would explain variance beyond that which could be explained by rumination. Undergraduate students (N = 277) completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Rumination subscale of the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the depression subscale of the symptom checklist-90 revised (SCL-90-R-dep). Results showed that mindfulness was associated with depressive symptoms both via the pathway of lower levels of rumination and via the pathway of higher levels of self-compassion. Both pathways were found to predict unique variance in depressive symptoms beyond that which could be explained by the other pathway. This suggests that one needs to consider the influence of mindfulness on both rumination and on self-compassion in order to fully understand why mindful individuals tend to be less depressed.
Using diffusion tensor imaging, several recent studies have shown that training results in changes in white matter efficiency as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). In our work, we found that a form of mindfulness meditation, integrative body–mind training (IBMT), improved FA in areas surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex after 4-wk training more than controls given relaxation training. Reductions in radial diffusivity (RD) have been interpreted as improved myelin but reductions in axial diffusivity (AD) involve other mechanisms, such as axonal density. We now report that after 4-wk training with IBMT, both RD and AD decrease accompanied by increased FA, indicating improved efficiency of white matter involves increased myelin as well as other axonal changes. However, 2-wk IBMT reduced AD, but not RD or FA, and improved moods. Our results demonstrate the time-course of white matter neuroplasticity in short-term meditation. This dynamic pattern of white matter change involving the anterior cingulate cortex, a part of the brain network related to self-regulation, could provide a means for intervention to improve or prevent mental disorders.
The paper explores the opportunities and challenges of combining media literacy and social-emotional literacy to promote mental health and wellbeing in school curricula. It describes the implementation of an experimental module within the program Crescere insieme What's Up (Growing up together What's Up). This upstream prevention and health promotion program, from the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (north-eastern Italy) is designed to harness the protective effects of developing and strengthening life skills to move beyond risk factors to prevent youth suicide, fostering connections and support between school and mental health institutions, peers and adults. The program activities involved role plays and reflection activities, collaborating in project group work, consulting and producing media (such as articles, Youtube videos and Powerpoint presentations) for peer-to-peer education. It adopted an experiential approach enabling active engagement of high school students, their parents and teachers, and 'learning by doing' with agency and responsibility. Qualitative feedback from students and teachers, study limitations and further implications are discussed.
<p>When deprived of compelling perceptual input, the mind is often occupied with thoughts unrelated to the immediate environment. Previous behavioral research has shown that this self-generated task-unrelated thought (TUT), especially under non-demanding conditions, relates to cognitive capacities such as creativity, planning, and reduced temporal discounting. Despite the frequency and importance of this type of cognition, little is known about its structural brain basis. Using MRI-based cortical thickness measures in 37 participants, we were able to show that individuals with a higher tendency to engage in TUT under low-demanding conditions (but not under high-demanding conditions) show an increased thickness of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior/midcingulate cortex. Thickness of these regions also related to less temporal discounting (TD) of monetary rewards in an economic task, indicative of more patient decision-making. The findings of a shared structural substrate in mPFC and anterior/midcingulate cortex underlying both TUT and TD suggest an important role of these brain regions in supporting the self-generation of information that is unrelated to the immediate environment and which may be adaptive in nature.</p>
Numerous interventions propose mindfulness training as a means of improving empathy. Our aim is to analyse the relationship between mindfulness practice and empathy through the mediating process of trait mindfulness. This sample comprised 264 undergraduate students ([Formula: see text], SD = 11,39). The instruments used were Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Toronto Empathy Questionnaire. The indirect effect was calculated using 10.000 bootstrap samples for the bootstrap confidence intervals corrected for bias. Empathy improvement is mediated by changes in the cognitions derived from mindfulness (B = .346, p<.01). The direct effect of mindfulness practice on empathy disappears in presence of this mediator (B = .133, p>.05). Mindfulness interventions that aim to improve empathy should focus on three of its components; observing, describing and nonreactivity to inner experience. Given the significance of the results, the research must be extended to larger samples.
Recent research has established the effect of mindfulness on subjective well-being. In this present study we attempt to extend the previous literature by investigating the potential mediating role of resilience in the impact of mindfulness on life satisfaction and affect as indices of subjective well-being. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to 327 undergraduate university students in India. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results showed that resilience partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and life satisfaction and affect components. The findings corroborate an important role of resilience in mindfulness exerting its beneficial effects. This study makes a contribution to the potential mechanism of the association between mindfulness and subjective well-being.
The purpose of this research is to determine the mediating role of self-efficacy and hope on the relationship of individuals' scores on the Primary Mental Abilities (PMAs) Test 7-11 with social emotional learning. In addition, the relationship of PMAs scores with hope and self-efficacy have also been examined. The study has been carried out over 281 fourth-grade students (160 female and 121 male). For data collection, the PMAs Test 7-11 was first applied to the students. Students with PMAs Test 7-11 scores also filled in the Self-efficacy Scale for Children, the Social-emotional Learning Scale, and the Children's Hope Scale. As a result of the analysis, a positive, significant correlation was found among all the variables. Moreover, a partially mediating role was found for hope and self-efficacy on the relationship between ability level and social emotional learning. This research is believed able to contribute to studies related to talented students.
The current study aimed to examine the mediation effects of self-esteem on the association between mindfulness and anxiety and depression. A sample of 417 undergraduate students completed a packet of questionnaires that assessed mindfulness, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Correlation results indicated that mindfulness was associated with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), mediational analyses showed that mindfulness exerted its indirect effect on anxiety and depression through self-esteem. A multi-group analysis showed that the mediational model was not moderated by gender and thus provided a preliminary support for the robustness of the final meditational model. The findings corroborate an important role of self-esteem in mindfulness exerting its beneficial effects on anxiety and depression.
Mindfulness has been associated with a range of positive mental health outcomes, including psychological well-being. Less well-understood, however, are the mechanisms by which mindfulness may improve psychological health and which specific aspects of mindfulness may be associated with psychological health. The present study examined emotion regulation and thought suppression as possible mediators of the association between four components of dispositional mindfulness (i.e., describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging, and nonreacting) and psychological well-being. One hundred eighty-five healthy female college students completed a series of self-report questionnaires measuring dispositional mindfulness, difficulties with emotion regulation, thought suppression, and psychological well-being. Overall, higher levels of mindfulness were associated with fewer difficulties with emotion regulation and less thought suppression, which in turn were inversely related to psychological well-being. Specifically, difficulties with emotion regulation and thought suppression together partially mediated the relationship between the acting with awareness mindfulness subscale and psychological well-being. Difficulties with emotion regulation and thought suppression together fully mediated the relationships between the describing mindfulness subscale and psychological well-being, as well as between the nonreacting mindfulness subscale and psychological well-being. These findings suggest that female college students exhibiting greater dispositional mindfulness skills demonstrate heightened emotional awareness and control, as well as a better ability to tolerate negative thoughts, skills which may improve psychological health.
The prevalence of stress-related illness has grown in recent years. Many of these patients seek help in primary health care. Yoga can reduce stress and thus complements pharmacological therapy in medical practice. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated patients' experiences of yoga treatment in a primary health care setting or, specifically, the experiences of yoga when suffering from stress-related illness. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of participating in medical yoga as a complementary treatment for stress-related symptoms and diagnosis in a primary health care setting. This study has a descriptive phenomenological design and took place at a primary health care centre in Sweden during 2011. Five women and one man (43-51 years) participated. They were recruited from the intervention group (n = 18) in a randomized control trial, in which they had participated in a medical yoga group in addition to standard care for 12 weeks. Data were collected by means of qualitative interviews, and a phenomenological data analysis was conducted. The essential meaning of the medical yoga experience was that the medical yoga was not an endpoint of recovery but the start of a process towards an increased sense of wholeness. It was described as a way of alleviating suffering, and it provided the participants with a tool for dealing with their stress and current situation on a practical level. It led to greater self-awareness and self-esteem, which in turn had an implicit impact on their lifeworld. In phenomenological terms, this can be summarized as Another way of being in the world, encompassing a perception of deepened identity. From a philosophical perspective, due to using the body in a new way (yoga), the participants had learnt to see things differently, which enriched and recast their perception of themselves and their lives.
There is a growing interest in studies that document the relationship between science and medicine - as ideas, practices, technologies and outcomes - across cultural, national, geographic terrain. Tibetan medicine is not only known as a scholarly medical tradition among other Asian medical systems, with many centuries of technological, clinical, and pharmacological innovation; it also survives today as a complex medical resource across many Asian nations - from India and Bhutan to Mongolia, Tibet (TAR) and China, Buryatia - as well as in Western Europe and the Americas. The contributions to this volume explore, in equal measure, the impacts of western science and biomedicine on Tibetan grounds - i.e., among Tibetans across China, the Himalaya and exile communities as well as in relation to globalized Tibetan medicine - and the ways that local practices change how such “science” gets done, and how this continually hybridized medical knowledge is transmitted and put into practice. As such, this volume contributes to explorations into the bi-directional flows of medical knowledge and practice.
<p>Abstract This study focused on 21 educators who have been meditating for an average of 4 years. These educators, who were mostly teachers, had been introduced to meditation in a graduate course in education. They chose to continue meditation after the class was completed. The study examined the nature of their meditation practice, and the effects that the participants perceived in their personal and professional lives. Almost all the participants indicated that they felt meditation had made a significant difference in their lives. The most cited benefit was feeling calmer and more centred. Four of the teachers had also introduced meditation to their students. The study indicated that holistic approaches to learning can be successfully introduced in a traditional academic setting</p>
This study focused on 21 educators who have been meditating for an average of 4 years. These educators, who were mostly teachers, had been introduced to meditation in a graduate course in education. They chose to continue meditation after the class was completed. The study examined the nature of their meditation practice, and the effects that the participants perceived in their personal and professional lives. Almost all the participants indicated that they felt meditation had made a significant difference in their lives. The most cited benefit was feeling calmer and more centered. Four of the teachers had also introduced meditation to their students. The study indicated that holistic approaches to learning can be successfully introduced in a traditional academic setting.