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BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the cancer most frequently diagnosed in women worldwide. Even though survival rates are continually increasing, breast cancer is often associated with long-term psychological distress, chronic pain, fatigue and impaired quality of life. Yoga comprises advice for an ethical lifestyle, spiritual practice, physical activity, breathing exercises and meditation. It is a complementary therapy that is commonly recommended for breast cancer-related impairments and has been shown to improve physical and mental health in people with different cancer types. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms among women with a diagnosis of breast cancer who are receiving active treatment or have completed treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), Indexing of Indian Medical Journals (IndMED), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and Clinicaltrials.gov on 29 January 2016. We also searched reference lists of identified relevant trials or reviews, as well as conference proceedings of the International Congress on Complementary Medicine Research (ICCMR), the European Congress for Integrative Medicine (ECIM) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials were eligible when they (1) compared yoga interventions versus no therapy or versus any other active therapy in women with a diagnosis of non-metastatic or metastatic breast cancer, and (2) assessed at least one of the primary outcomes on patient-reported instruments, including health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, fatigue or sleep disturbances. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently collected data on methods and results. We expressed outcomes as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and conducted random-effects model meta-analyses. We assessed potential risk of publication bias through visual analysis of funnel plot symmetry and heterogeneity between studies by using the Chi(2) test and the I(2) statistic. We conducted subgroup analyses for current treatment status, time since diagnosis, stage of cancer and type of yoga intervention. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 studies with a total of 2166 participants, 23 of which provided data for meta-analysis. Thirteen studies had low risk of selection bias, five studies reported adequate blinding of outcome assessment and 15 studies had low risk of attrition bias.Seventeen studies that compared yoga versus no therapy provided moderate-quality evidence showing that yoga improved health-related quality of life (pooled SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.40; 10 studies, 675 participants), reduced fatigue (pooled SMD -0.48, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.20; 11 studies, 883 participants) and reduced sleep disturbances in the short term (pooled SMD -0.25, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.09; six studies, 657 participants). The funnel plot for health-related quality of life was asymmetrical, favouring no therapy, and the funnel plot for fatigue was roughly symmetrical. This hints at overall low risk of publication bias. Yoga did not appear to reduce depression (pooled SMD -0.13, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.05; seven studies, 496 participants; low-quality evidence) or anxiety (pooled SMD -0.53, 95% CI -1.10 to 0.04; six studies, 346 participants; very low-quality evidence) in the short term and had no medium-term effects on health-related quality of life (pooled SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.42; two studies, 146 participants; low-quality evidence) or fatigue (pooled SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.29; two studies, 146 participants; low-quality evidence). Investigators reported no serious adverse events.Four studies that compared yoga versus psychosocial/educational interventions provided moderate-quality evidence indicating that yoga can reduce depression (pooled SMD -2.29, 95% CI -3.97 to -0.61; four studies, 226 participants), anxiety (pooled SMD -2.21, 95% CI -3.90 to -0.52; three studies, 195 participants) and fatigue (pooled SMD -0.90, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.50; two studies, 106 participants) in the short term. Very low-quality evidence showed no short-term effects on health-related quality of life (pooled SMD 0.81, 95% CI -0.50 to 2.12; two studies, 153 participants) or sleep disturbances (pooled SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.76 to 0.34; two studies, 119 participants). No trial adequately reported safety-related data.Three studies that compared yoga versus exercise presented very low-quality evidence showing no short-term effects on health-related quality of life (pooled SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.23; three studies, 233 participants) or fatigue (pooled SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.66 to 0.25; three studies, 233 participants); no trial provided safety-related data. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence supports the recommendation of yoga as a supportive intervention for improving health-related quality of life and reducing fatigue and sleep disturbances when compared with no therapy, as well as for reducing depression, anxiety and fatigue, when compared with psychosocial/educational interventions. Very low-quality evidence suggests that yoga might be as effective as other exercise interventions and might be used as an alternative to other exercise programmes.

This study evaluated the effects of yoga on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, resilience, and mindfulness in military personnel. Participants completing the yoga intervention were 12 current or former military personnel who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Results were also benchmarked against other military intervention studies of PTSD using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 2000) as an outcome measure. Results of within-subject analyses supported the study's primary hypothesis that yoga would reduce PTSD symptoms (d = 0.768; t = 2.822; p = .009) but did not support the hypothesis that yoga would significantly increase mindfulness (d = 0.392; t = -0.9500; p = .181) and resilience (d = 0.270; t = -1.220; p = .124) in this population. Benchmarking results indicated that, as compared with the aggregated treatment benchmark (d = 1.074) obtained from published clinical trials, the current study's treatment effect (d = 0.768) was visibly lower, and compared with the waitlist control benchmark (d = 0.156), the treatment effect in the current study was visibly higher.

This book is written for those new to yoga and for those who have been practicing for many years, both students and teachers. You will learn how to design your own practice with the purpose of aligning your neuromuscular system. By using all three tools -- asana practice, pranayama, and meditation you will be in charge of your own path to health and well being.--

BACKGROUND: Stress and back pain are two key factors leading to sickness absence at work. Recent research indicates that yoga can be effective for reducing perceived stress, alleviating back pain, and improving psychological well-being.AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of a yoga-based intervention for reducing perceived stress and back pain at work. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a British local government authority and randomized into a yoga group who received one 50 min Dru Yoga session each week for 8 weeks and a 20 min DVD for home practice and a control group who received no intervention. Baseline and end-programme measurements of self-reported stress, back pain and psychological well-being were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. RESULTS: There were 37 participants in each group. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression showed that in comparison to the control group, the yoga group reported significant reductions in perceived stress and back pain, and a substantial improvement in psychological well-being. When compared with the control group at the end of the programme, the yoga group scores were significantly lower for perceived stress, back pain, sadness and hostility, and substantially higher for feeling self-assured, attentive and serene. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that a workplace yoga intervention can reduce perceived stress and back pain and improve psychological well-being. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the broader efficacy of yoga for improving workplace productivity and reducing sickness absence.

At work employees face numerous psychological stressors that can undermine their work performance. These stressors, stemming from a variety of possible causes, have enormous health and financial impacts on employees as well as employers. Stress has been shown to be one of the factors leading to musculo-skeletal disorders (MSDs) such as: include back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, shoulder or neck tension, eye strain, or headaches. Yoga is an ancient form of exercise that can reduce stress and relieve muscular tension or pain. Practicing yoga at the workplace teaches employees to use relaxation techniques to reduce stress and risks of injury on the job. Yoga at the workplace is a convenient and practical outlet that improves work performance by relieving tension and job stress.

Health and human service providers have expressed growing interest in the benefits of yoga to help individuals cope with the effects of trauma, including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite the growing popularity and strong appeal of yoga, providers must be mindful of the evidence regarding the efficacy of yoga in treating trauma effects as well as trauma-related mental health symptoms and illnesses. Therefore, our research team sought to answer two questions: (a) What is the evidence regarding yoga as a treatment for trauma effects, including anxiety, depression, and PTSD and (b) what are the clinical and service recommendations for using yoga with trauma-exposed individuals? Our initial scans identified a substantial body of research, including reviews. Rather than replicate earlier efforts, we undertook a systematic meta-review of 13 literature reviews, one of which included a meta-analysis. We determined the 13 reviews examined 185 distinct studies. Findings show that the evidence regarding yoga as an intervention for the effects of trauma as well as the mental health symptoms and illnesses often associated with trauma is encouraging but preliminary. Overall, the body of research is lacking in rigor as well as specificity regarding trauma. Review results also only allow for the recommendation of yoga as an ancillary treatment. Further, the reviews had considerable differences in their methods and limitations. Nonetheless, the results yielded findings concerning how clinicians and service providers can use yoga in their own practices, which is an important step for building an evidence base in this area.

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) afflicts millions of people worldwide, with particularly high prevalence in military veterans. Many treatment options exist for CLBP, but most have limited effectiveness and some have significant side effects. In general populations with CLBP, yoga has been shown to improve health outcomes with few side effects. However, yoga has not been adequately studied in military veteran populations. In the current paper we will describe the design and methods of a randomized clinical trial aimed at examining whether yoga can effectively reduce disability and pain in US military veterans with CLBP. A total of 144 US military veterans with CLBP will be randomized to either yoga or a delayed treatment comparison group. The yoga intervention will consist of 2x weekly yoga classes for 12weeks, complemented by regular home practice guided by a manual. The delayed treatment group will receive the same intervention after six months. The primary outcome is the change in back pain-related disability measured with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire at baseline and 12-weeks. Secondary outcomes include pain intensity, pain interference, depression, anxiety, fatigue/energy, quality of life, self-efficacy, sleep quality, and medication usage. Additional process and/or mediational factors will be measured to examine dose response and effect mechanisms. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 6-weeks, 12-weeks, and 6-months. All randomized participants will be included in intention-to-treat analyses. Study results will provide much needed evidence on the feasibility and effectiveness of yoga as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of CLBP in US military veterans.

"Yoga is a powerful tool that can influence women's well-being at all stages of life. For a long time, women have devoted themselves to gym-training in order to acquire beautiful and well-formed bodies, but the hunt for the perfect body has rather widened the gap between body and soul. That is why yoga has had such a breakthrough in the western world in the last few years. Yoga for Women starts with a brief introduction, includes a presentation of the eight basic foundations of yoga. This is followed by breathing exercises that you can use when you practice yoga, and which help you to be calm and concentrated. The main part of the book contains fifty exercises that are primarily based on hatha yoga but are influenced by ashtangi yoga. The movements and positions give you strength, flexibility, and relaxation. They are divided into the various needs women have during their life, with the emphasis upon middle-aged woman. The exercises can be combined into a personal program as well. Perfect for the beginner or intermediate student, Yoga for Women empowers women of all ages to lead healthier and more balanced lives." --

Finally, a book that emphasizes the sacred love teaching woven throughout the Bhagavad Gita and Yoga Sutra texts!Drawing from the ancient bhakti tradition they have belonged to for decades, authors Catherine Ghosh and Braja Sorensen invite the reader to broaden their definition of yoga according to one of the best-kept secrets of the Bhagavad Gita: that although it is set in a war zone, at its core the Gita is essentially a book on love, and yoga is the process through which we connect with, and participate in, that love. Yoga in the Gita offers readers two very different yet complimentary voices presenting the same ancient approaches to self-development from both Krishna and Patanjali in practical, philosophically insightful and entertaining ways. With the first part of the book focusing exclusively on the way Krishna defines yoga in the Gita, and the second half drawing bhakti parallels between Krishna’s teachings and Patanjali’s, the authors offer a captivating and inspiring way for readers to appreciate the rich elements that make up a serious yoga lifestyle. In this first contemporary book on yoga written by women to have emerged from the bhakti tradition, yoga practice takes on a whole new dimension: one that includes everything from our relationship with ourselves, with our bodies, and with others, to the relationship we have with the environment and the divine.

Interpretive study on a Buddhist tantric work, with reference to the classical commentaries of the text.


This contribution to the Common Knowledge symposium “Fuzzy Studies” explores the boundaries between religions by exploring the ambiguous place of yoga in various religious traditions, both modern and premodern. Recently, certain Hindus and Christians have tried to argue that yoga is an essentially Hindu practice, making their case by appealing to the Yoga Sutras, a text by the Sanskrit author Patanjali. However, on closer examination, the Yoga Sutras seem to exist in a fuzzy, indeterminate space that is not quite “Hindu” in the way the word is understood today. For instance, other Sanskrit authors of the first millennium CE criticized Patanjali’s yoga teachings for not being properly theistic and for having strong affinities to Buddhism and Jainism. Yoga was also integrated into at least one of the “religions of the book” in the medieval period: in India in the second millennium, yoga was practiced widely among Sufis, who adapted it in surprising and idiosyncratic ways to make it compatible with their own Islamic philosophies. Nicholson concludes with an appeal for a more nuanced understanding of religious contact that goes beyond the pejorative term syncretism to acknowledge that religious mixing has been a central force in the development not only of Hinduism and Islam, but also of Christianity.

The volume traces the intellectual history of Patanjala Yoga philosophy from the early centuries of the Common Era through the twentieth century. It also provides a systematic discussions of the philosophy of classical Yoga. Particular attention is given to the meaning of concentration (Samadhi), engrossment (samapatti) and the extra-ordinary cognitive capacities (vibhutis, siddhis) and the role that these notions play in the Yoga philosophy, which are relevant for issues currently under discussion in contemporary western philosophy of mind. The volume compares and contrasts classical yoga philosophy with classical Samkhya and with Indian Buddhist thought. Although the primary focus of the volume is on Patanjala Yoga, the system of Hatha Yoga and other satellite systems of Yoga are discussed as well, and an attempt is made to differentiate clearly the classical system of Yoga Sastra from Hatha Yoga and the other satellite systems. Some twenty-eight Sanskrit texts of Patanjala. Yoga are summarized or noted in the volume. Twenty-six volumes of Hatha Yoga and the texts of some other satellite systems are also included. Altogether the volume contains summaries and or notations for some seventy-five Sanskrit texts.

<p>A multiple baseline design across three grade level groups with a comparison group was employed to investigate the effectiveness of yoga for improving time on task with 10 elementary school children who evidenced attention problems. A yoga videotape, published by Gaiam, was used that required the children to follow an adult instructor and three children who engaged in deep breathing, physical postures, and relaxation exercises for 30 minutes, twice a week, for a period of 3 weeks. Time on task was defined as the percentage of intervals observed that the students were orientating toward the teacher or task, and performing the requested classroom assignments. The results indicated effect sizes that ranged from 1.5 to 2.7 as a function of the intervention. Effect sizes at follow-up decreased, but ranged from .77 to 1.95. Peer comparison data indicated that classmates’ time on task remained essentially unchanged throughout the three phases of the study.</p>
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Music performance anxiety can adversely affect musicians. There is a need for additional treatment strategies, especially those that might be more acceptable to musicians than existing therapies. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 9-week yoga practice on reducing music performance anxiety in undergraduate and graduate music conservatory students, including both vocalists and instrumentalists. The intervention consisted of fourteen 60-minute yoga classes approximately twice a week and a brief daily home practice. Of the 24 students enrollee! in the study, 17 attended the post-intervention assessment. Participants who completed the measures at both pre- and post-intervention assessments showed large decreases in music performance anxiety as well as in trait anxiety. Improvements were sustained at 7- to 14-month follow-up. Participants generally provided positive comments about the program and its benefits. This study suggests that yoga is a promising intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students and therefore warrants further research. Med Probl Perform Art 2012; 27(3): 123-128.

Jaina Studies is a relatively new and rapidly expanding field of inquiry for scholars of Indian religion and philosophy. In Jainism, "yoga" carries many meanings, and this book explores the definitions, nuances, and applications of the term in relation to Jainism from early times to the present.Yoga in Jainism begins by discussing how the use of the term yoga in the earliest Jaina texts described the mechanics of mundane action or karma. From the time of the later Upanisads, the word Yoga became associated in all Indian religions with spiritual practices of ethical restraint, prayer, and meditation. In the medieval period, Jaina authors such as Haribhadra, Subhacandra, and Hemacandra used the term Yoga in reference to Jaina spiritual practice. In the modern period, a Jaina form of Yoga emerged, known as Preksa Dhyana. This practice includes the physical postures and breathing exercises well known through the globalization of Yoga. By exploring how Yoga is understood and practiced within Jainism, this book makes an important contribution to the fields of Yoga Studies, Religious Studies, Philosophy, and South Asian Studies.


<p>A guide to Ashtanga Yoga. It outlines the ethical principles and philosophy underlying the discipline, explains important terms and concepts, and guides the reader through Ashtanga's Sun Salutations and the subsequent primary sequence of forty-two asanas, or poses, describing how to execute each position and what benefits each provides.</p>

"The first pre- and postnatal book geared specifically to experienced yoga practitioners--from an established author, with contributions from the leaders in the field. You've been practicing yoga for years. It is a part of the way you live, move, and breathe. And then. you get pregnant. Pregnancy can throw any woman a curve ball. Even established and experienced yoga practitioners will likely find that their body, mind, and practice are challenged during pregnancy, birth, and motherhood. This book is the yoga practitioner's companion through this period, offering practical advice, step-by-step asana sequences, pranayama practices, and meditation techniques, all of which are designed to help new mothers connect more deeply to their experience and prepare for their journey--physically, mentally, and spiritually. Grounded in both ancient wisdom and contemporary knowledge, Yoga Mama covers each trimester, labor and birth, and the postpartum years. The beautifully photographed sequences include modifications and suggestions to accommodate a growing belly and to address the concerns or challenges that may arise during this time. Holistic and ayurvedic medicine perspectives help women understand what is happening in their bodies at every juncture, and personal stories connect them to pregnant women everywhere. Through practice, self-reflection, and learning how to let go, yoga gives us the opportunity to be an active, informed participant in the birthing of our baby and a healthy, happy parent. Yoga Mama is the perfect companion for the experienced yoga practitioner during her pregnancy and on into motherhood. This pre- and postnatal book offers practical advice and inspiration, asana sequences, pranayama practices, and meditation techniques, all of which speak to and help new mothers connect more deeply to their experience and prepare for their journey--physically, mentally, and spiritually. Grounded in ancient wisdom and contemporary knowledge, the book covers each trimester, labor and birth, and the postpartum years. It includes: Flowing sequences that emphasize self-awareness and promote strength, flexibility, and balance -- Modifications that accommodate a pregnant woman's growing belly, recalibrate her balance, and honor fluctuations in her energy levels -- Mini sequences for

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