Context: Ādi Śaṅkāracārya was an exponent of Advaita Vedānta philosophy. It is well-known that he preached Jñāna Yoga or the path of knowledge for attainment of liberation. However, very few people are aware of the fact that Ādi Śaṅkāracārya has mentioned various methods or types of yoga for liberation depending on the dispositions of the aspirants. Study of his unpopular works reveal this fact.Aim: The aim of this paper is to present various types of yoga discussed in the works of Ādi Śaṅkāracārya. Method: A descriptive method of analyzing arguments is used because of the philosophico-literary nature of the study. Result: Ādi Śaṅkāracārya has stated various types of yoga such as Bhakti Yoga, Rāja Yoga, Haṭha Yoga, and Tantra Yoga as a means to Jñāna Yoga. Conclusion: Study of Ādi Śaṅkāracārya's work reveals that Bhakti Yoga, Rāja Yoga Haṭha Yoga, and Tantra Yoga are a means to knowledge or Jñāna Yoga for the attainment of emancipation.
The 1st vol. of the author's Talks at Centre; the subsequent volumes are: The yogas of knowledge and love; The yoga of self-perfection.
On yogic exercises.
<p>An online bibliography of sources on Yogācāra Buddhism. Only lists 9 works, several bibliographies themselves.</p>
The Yogacara school of Buddhist thought claims that all language use is metaphorical. Exploring the profound implications of this assertion, Roy Tzhoar makes the case for viewing the Yogacara account as a full-fledged theory of meaning, one that is not merely linguistic, but also applicable both in the world and in texts.; Target Audience: Specialized
The Yogacana-Vijnanavada Idealism was the last great creative synthesis of Buddhism and its position in that tradition is comparable to that of the Advaita Vedanta. In this present book the author deals with the Yogacara-Vijnanavada in all its aspects and bearings, historically, analytically and comparatively. The first two chapters show, with great clarity and sufficient detail, the origin and development of the Yogacara idealism as an outcome of those fruitful and dynamic ideas associated with the previous schools of Buddhism, especially with the Sautrantika and the Madhyamika. The originality of the Yogacara synthesis of Buddhist teachings has been clearly brought out, and the individual contributions made by the philosophers of this school, such as Asanga, Vasubandhu, Sthiramati, Dignaga, Dharmakirti and Santaraksita, have received adequate attention. The subsequent chapters, which form the core of the work, represent a constructive and critical exposition of the Yogacara metaphysics, its idealism and absolutism as well as its spiritual discipline. This reprint after a lapse of ten years fills the need of the researchers.
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effects of instruction in yogic breathing techniques (Pranayama) in patients with treatment-resistant generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in UK secondary mental health services settings.Materials and Methods: Participants were adult primary or secondary care patients with a primary diagnosis of GAD (with or without comorbidity) and persistent anxiety symptoms of at least moderate intensity, despite prior treatment with two or more medications of proven efficacy. Patients participated in group-delivered yogic breathing training and practice for 12 weeks. Structured assessments were performed at baseline, after 1, 2, and 6 weeks of instruction, and at end-point. Participants also completed the antisaccade (emotional variant) task and startle response task at baseline and end-point. Results: At baseline, participating patients (n = 9) had moderate-to-severe anxiety symptoms and mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms, they attended 84% of offered sessions and provided positive feedback on the content and delivery of treatment. Symptom severity reduced significantly from baseline to end-point. There were greater errors on negative trials compared to neutral trials in the antisaccade task at baseline, and a significant reduction in antisaccade errors for negative stimuli as compared to neutral stimuli between baseline and end-point: but there were no significant differences in either mean heart rate or startle response between baseline and end-point. Limitations: The absence of a control group and small sample size. Conclusion: Yogic breathing techniques proved simple to learn and may be beneficial in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant GAD. Yogic breathing had no effect on autonomic arousal, but the reduction in errors to negative stimuli in the antisaccade task suggests an improvement in attention control during the intervention accompanying the reduction in symptoms.
BACKGROUND: Resistive breathing practices are known to improve endurance and performance in competitive swimmers. However, the effect of Pranayama or Yogic Breathing Practices (YBP) in improving respiratory endurance and performance of competitive swimmers remains un-investigated.OBJECTIVES: To study effects of yogic breathing practices on lung functions of swimmers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven national and international competitive swimmers of the age range 13-20 years, with 8.29 ± 2.9 years of competitive swimming experience and practicing swimming for 9.58 ± 1.81 km everyday, were assigned randomly to either an experimental (YBP) or to wait list control group (no intervention). Outcome measures were taken on day 1 and day 30 and included (1) spirometry to measure lung function, (2) Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2) to measure the antecedents and consequences of cognitive and somatic trait anxiety of sport performance and (3) number of strokes per breath to measure performance. The YBP group practiced a prescribed set of Yogic Breathing Practices - Sectional Breathing (Vibhagiya Pranayama), Yogic Bellows Breathing (Bhastrika Pranayama) and Alternate Nostril Breathing with Voluntary Internal Breath Holding (Nadi Shodhana with Anthar kumbhaka) for half an hour, five days a week for one month. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in the YBP group as compared to control group in maximal voluntary ventilation (p = 0.038), forced vital capacity (p = 0.026) and number of strokes per breath (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that YBP helps to enhance respiratory endurance in competitive swimmers.
BACKGROUND: Self-report measures indicate that Yoga practices are perceived to reduce stress; however, molecular mechanisms through which YB affects stress are just beginning to be understood. While invasive sampling such as blood has been widely used to measure biological indicators such as pro-inflammatory biomarkers, the use of saliva to measure changes in various biomolecules has been increasingly recognized. As Yoga practice stimulates salivary secretion, and saliva is considered a source of biomarkers, changes in salivary cytokines before and after Yogic breathing exercise as specified in an ancient Tamil script, Thirumanthiram, were examined using a Cytokine Multiplex to compare to Attention Control (AC) group.METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers were randomized into two groups stratified by gender (N = 10 per YB and AC groups); The YB group performed two YB exercises, each for ten minutes, for a total of twenty minutes in a single session as directed by a trained Yoga instructor. The AC group read a text of their choice for 20 min. Saliva was collected immediately after YB training at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min and analyzed by Multiplex enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein -1 (MCP-1) were significantly reduced in YB group when compared to AC group. The level of reduction of IL-8 was significant at all time points tested, whereas IL-1β showed reduction at 15 and 20 min time points (p < 0.05), and MCP-1 level was marginally different at 5-20 min. There were no significant differences between YB and AC groups in the salivary levels of IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1b, and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: These data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting salivary cytokines using multiplex assay in response to a Yoga practice. This study was registered in Clinical Trials.gov # NCT02108769.
BACKGROUND: Although yoga and meditation have been used for stress reduction with reported improvement in inflammation, little is known about the biological mechanisms mediating such effects. The present study examined if a yogic meditation might alter the activity of inflammatory and antiviral transcription control pathways that shape immune cell gene expression. METHODS: Forty-five family dementia caregivers were randomized to either Kirtan Kriya Meditation (KKM) or Relaxing Music (RM) listening for 12 min daily for 8 weeks and 39 caregivers completed the study. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles were collected from peripheral blood leukocytes sampled at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Promoter-based bioinformatics analyses tested the hypothesis that observed transcriptional alterations were structured by reduced activity of the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcription factors and increased activity of Interferon Response Factors (IRFs; i.e., reversal of patterns previously linked to stress). RESULTS: In response to KKM treatment, 68 genes were found to be differentially expressed (19 up-regulated, 49 down-regulated) after adjusting for potentially confounded differences in sex, illness burden, and BMI. Up-regulated genes included immunoglobulin-related transcripts. Down-regulated transcripts included pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation-related immediate-early genes. Transcript origin analyses identified plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B lymphocytes as the primary cellular context of these transcriptional alterations (both p<.001). Promoter-based bioinformatic analysis implicated reduced NF-κB signaling and increased activity of IRF1 in structuring those effects (both p<.05). CONCLUSION: A brief daily yogic meditation intervention may reverse the pattern of increased NF-κB-related transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased IRF1-related transcription of innate antiviral response genes previously observed in healthy individuals confronting a significant life stressor.
Background Many clinical trials have evaluated the oxidative stress reduction and enhancement of antioxidant status following yogic practices, but a review has not been reported earlier. Present study is designed to systematically review the effect of yogic practices on oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Content Using the MEDLINE, EMBASE SCOPEMED, and Indian database electronic searches were performed through August 2016 using the keywords yoga AND oxidative stress OR antioxidant which yielded 97 studies. Selections were made to include only experimental studies written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals and investigating the effects of regular yogic practices on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in these studies. Summary and outlook Search yielded a total of 97 trials, 11 met rigorous criteria for final systematic review. Healthy population showed overall enhancement of antioxidant status and reduced oxidative stress following yogic practices. Diabetic patients showed increased glutathione, vitamin C content and superoxide dismutase activity and decreased malondialdehyde content following yogic practices. Prediabetic and hypertensive patients showed reduced malondialdehyde content following yogic practices. Renal disease patients showed decreased protein oxidation, and increased superoxide dismutase activity following yogic practices. Regular yogic practices can improve antioxidants and reduce oxidative stress in healthy, diabetic, prediabetic, hypertensive and renal disease patients. Studies on other disease population have rarely been reported and studies are very few to conclude strongly.
The book is a complete one of its kind books on Pranayama, an important, yet little known part of Yoga. Breathing exercises are called Pranayamas, which means to control the Prana. Its techniques have been practiced for centuries by ardent students of Yoga in remote ashrams. Pranayama is a very important means for preventing and curing many ailments. By far the most important thing about good breathing is the Prana, or subtle energy of the vital breath. Control of the Prana leads to control of the mind. The aim of this book is to bring the traditional knowledge of this great art to the common man. It is hoped that by reading this book the reader will be well equipped to keep diseases at bay by using the age-old techniques of Pranayama. Pranayama, the control of the breath, essentially entails the modification of our normal process of breathing. This book is an exhaustive look into the art of breathing. It is complete, detailed and technical. Yogic Pranayama is one of the most exhaustive, yet understandable book on breath, the physiology of breath, and the effects of proper breathing on the human organism written. The drawings and diagrams in the book are precise, simple and easy to understand.
It has long been claimed by Yogis and Buddhists that meditation and ancient breath-focused practices, such as pranayama, strengthen our ability to focus on tasks. A new study explains for the first time the neurophysiological link between breathing and attention.
"Pain, suffering, and stress can be intolerable, but it doesn't have to be this way. You Are Not Your Pain reveals a simple set of mindfulness-based practices that you can incorporate into daily life to relieve chronic pain and the suffering and stress of illness. Clinical trials show that mindfulness meditation can be as effective as prescription painkillers and enhance the body's natural healing systems. It also significantly reduces the anxiety, stress, depression, irritability, exhaustion, and insomnia that often accompanies chronic pain and illness. Developed by two authors who have themselves struggled with the severe pain of serious injuries, this accessible book reveals the eight-week program that will quickly melt away your suffering. Taking just 10-20 minutes per day, it is a simple yet effective way to soothe some of the most common causes of pain such as back problems, arthritis, and migraine. It is also effective for people undergoing chemotherapy, or suffering from heart disease, diabetes, fibromyalgia, celiac disease, and many other causes of severe and chronic pain. Accompanied by a CD of12 meditations, readers will quickly learn to dissolve suffering by soothing the brain's pain networks. It will help you to live life fully once again"--
Here’s a revised and updated edition of the most readable book on depression. Folks who are feeling really depressed often don’t feel much like reading, but You Can Beat Depressionis a very reader-friendly self-help guide. This important resource has been recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health D/ART program and the National Mental Health Association. Readers will find all-new information on bipolar disorder diagnosis and treatment, along with helpful material on prevention of depression, prevention of relapse after treatment, brief therapy interventions, exercise and other non-medical approaches, the Prozac controversy, and much more. Includes an up-to-date consumer guide to medications. Its comprehensive approach to self-assessment carefully guides readers to figure out when and how they can help themselves, when they need to seek professional treatment, and what to expect along the way.
In our database of 331 parental narratives of tantrums had by children 18–60 months old, 29% of the tantrums were followed by child-initiated affiliation with parents. Four variables increased the probability of children's post tantrum affiliation (PTA): age, prolonged screaming, physiological stress, and parent-initiated separation from the child during the tantrum. The age effect may be due to increasing post tantrum persistence of negative affect, to the emergence of shame, guilt, and embarrassment over this developmental period, and/or to increasing cognitive ability, empathic capacity, or socialization. Screaming, which may be analogous to the defensive vocalizations of nonhuman primates, increases PTA when prolonged for 6 min or more. Physiological stress (indicated by autonomic activation or respiratory distress) appears linked to prolonged screaming and may mediate its effects by increasing the child's dysphoria and need for consolation. Separation (parents' departure from the scene of the tantrum or their imposition of a time out) also appears linked to prolonged screaming and may reflect parents' response to an aversive auditory stimulus. There was no evidence that PTA was associated with the presence or degree of physically expressed anger in the tantrum. PTA may be associated with distress during the tantrum. The post conflict reconciliation which occurs in several domains of human social life may be first experienced by children in the aftermath of their tantrums. Aggr. Behav. 23:329–341, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Our in-breath is like a remote control for our brains, directly affecting electrical signals that communicate with memory and emotional processing centers.
"Developing Social and Emotional Wellbeing in Children provides a practical guide full of proven strategies for promoting social and emotional learning (SEL) skills in children aged 4-16. A practical guide designed to support parents and education professionals in developing social and emotional skills in children, a form of learning that can be neglected in formal education Demonstrates how to foster social and emotional learning (SEL) at home and in the classroom, and shows how parents and professionals can work together for success Includes a wealth of exercises for promoting social and emotional wellbeing, along with tips, tools, and coverage of new developments such as computer-assisted instruction Written by authors with a wealth of practical and writing experience"--