"Hundreds of user-friendly lesson plans help teachers build attitudes of respect and caring, reduce problem behaviors, empower students to solve problems, and educate the whole child socially, emotionally, and academically. The lessons' literature-based connections allow teachers to "build in" rather than "add on" social-emotional learning (SEL) as part of the daily curriculum. Each resource guide offers: - Monthly themes focused on emotions, empathy, relationships, conflict resolution, bullying prevention, problem solving, decision making, teamwork, and self-esteem - Literature-based lessons with curriculum integrations for using the lessons as part of language arts, social studies, science, math, art, and music - Easy-to-implement lesson formats
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acute and chronic effects of yoga practice. DESIGN: Quantitative study using a one-group pre-posttest design. SETTING: Visao Futuro Institute, Porangaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 22 volunteers (7 men and 15 women). INTERVENTION: Six weeks of a tantric yoga program (TYP), 50 minutes per session, held twice a week from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. The local ethics committee approved the protocol. OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected in the first week and at the end of the sixth week of TYP. Salivary cortisol concentration (SCC) was used to measure physiology of distress and to analyze the short- and long-term effects of TYP. Psychological distress was evaluated by applying a specific perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ). Results (mean+/-standard deviation) were analyzed by Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). RESULTS: SCC decreased 24% after the first (0.66+/-0.20 mug/dL versus 0.50+/-0.13 mug/dL) and last (1.01+/-0.37 versus 0.76+/-0.31 mug/dL) sessions, showing the short-term effect of yoga. Long-term effects were analyzed by daily rhythm of cortisol production. In the beginning, volunteers showed altered SCC during the day, with nighttime values (0.42+/-0.28) higher than those at noon (0.30+/-0.06). After the TYP, SCC was higher in the morning (1.01+/-0.37) and decreased during the day, with lower values before sleep (0.30+/-0.13). The TYP was also efficient to reduce PSQ scores (0.45+/-0.13 versus 0.39+/-0.07). Specifically, the irritability, tension, and fatigue domains on the PSQ decreased (0.60+/-0.20 versus 0.46+/-0.13), as did the fear and anxiety domains (0.54+/-0.30 versus 0.30+/-0.20). CONCLUSION: Over the short term, TYP led to the decrease of cortisol production. Over the long term, TYP induced higher cortisol production in the morning and lower production in the evening. Those effects contributed to the physical and mental well-being of the participants.
BACKGROUND: College students are vulnerable to a critical period in developmental maturation, facing rigorous academic work and learning how to function independently. Western aerobic exercise (WAE), such as running and bicycling, has been shown to improve mood and relieve stress. However, college students often have low levels of physical activity. Yoga is an ancient physical and mental practice that may affect mood and stress. However, rigorous studies examining the psychological effects of yoga are rare in peerreviewed Western journals. The aim of this research was to establish preliminary evidence for the acute effects of Vinyasa yoga on affect and stress in young-adult college students. METHODS: Twenty healthy college students age 18 years and older were recruited to participate in this pilot study. Participants attended a Vinyasa yoga class at a local studio twice weekly for 8 weeks. Affect and stress were assessed before and after each yoga session. Measures included the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) and the Cohen Perceived Stress scale. RESULTS: Positive affect scores increased significantly (p < 0.05) for 14 of the 16 yoga sessions (mean increase = 23.2%). Negative affect decreased significantly from pre- to postyoga (p < 0.05) for 15 of the 16 sessions (mean decrease = 22%). Repeated measures ANOVAs examining pre-post composite scores across all 8 weeks showed significant changes in PANAS, but not stress scores. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that yoga practice is associated with acute improvements in affect in a young-adult college population. Future research is needed to examine the extent to which different types of yoga address the needs of different college sub-populations (e.g., eating disordered, overweight/obese, sedentary, and smokers).
To test the effects of cortisol on affective experience, the authors orally administered a placebo, 20 mg cortisol, or 40 mg cortisol to 85 men. Participants' affective responses to negative and neutral stimuli were measured. Self-reported affective state was also assessed. Participants in the 40-mg group (showing extreme cortisol elevations within the physiological range) rated neutral stimuli as more highly arousing than did participants in the placebo and 20-mg groups. Furthermore, within the 20-mg group, individuals with higher cortisol elevations made higher arousal ratings of neutral stimuli. However, cortisol was unrelated to self-reported affective state. Thus, findings indicate that acute cortisol elevations cause heightened arousal in response to objectively nonarousing stimuli, in the absence of effects on mood.
The concept of recovery strategies includes various ways to achieve a state of well-being, prevent underrecovery syndromes from occurring and re-establish pre-performance states. A systematic application of individualised relaxation techniques is one of those. Following a counterbalanced cross-over design, 27 sport science students (age 25.22 +/- 1.08 years; sports participation 8.08 +/- 3.92 h/week) were randomly assigned to series of progressive muscle relaxation, systematic breathing, power nap, yoga, and a control condition. Once a week, over the course of five weeks, their repeated sprint ability was tested. Tests (6 sprints of 4 s each with 20 s breaks between them) were executed on a non-motorised treadmill twice during that day intermitted by 25 min breaks. RM-ANOVA revealed significant interaction effects between the relaxation conditions and the two sprint sessions with regard to average maximum speed over all six sprints, F(4,96) = 4.06, P = 0.004, [Formula: see text] = 0.15. Post-hoc tests indicated that after systematic breathing interventions, F(1,24) = 5.02, P = 0.033, [Formula: see text] = 0.18, participants performed significantly better compared to control sessions. As the focus of this study lied on basic mechanisms of relaxation techniques in sports, this randomised controlled trial provides us with distinct knowledge on their effects, i.e., systematic breathing led to better performances, and therefore, seems to be a suited relaxation method during high-intensity training.
AimsTo design, construct and validate a pharmacokinetics simulator that offers students hands‐on opportunities to participate in the design, administration and analysis of oral and intravenous dosing regimens. Methods The Alberta Drug Administration Modeller (ADAM) is a mechanical patient in which peristaltic circulation of water through a network of silicone tubing and glass bottles creates a representation of the outcomes of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Changing peristaltic pump rates and volumes in bottles allows values for pharmacokinetic constants to be varied, thereby simulating differences in drug properties and in patient physiologies and pathologies. Following administration of methylene blue dye by oral or intravenous routes, plasma and/or urine samples are collected and drug concentrations are determined spectrophotometrically. The effectiveness of the simulator in enhancing student competence and confidence was assessed in two undergraduate laboratory classes. Results The simulator effectively models one‐ and two‐compartment drug behaviour in a mathematically‐robust and realistic manner. Data allow calculation of numerous pharmacokinetic constants, by traditional graphing methods or with curve‐fitting software. Students' competence in solving pharmacokinetic problems involving calculations and graphing improved significantly, while an increase in confidence and understanding was reported. Conclusions The ADAM is relatively inexpensive and straightforward to construct, and offers a realistic, hands‐on pharmacokinetics learning opportunity for students that effectively complements didactic lectures.
How is Adaptation Practice different from Mindfulness and CBT? Over recent years a lot of people have asked me about Mindfulness, Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). What do I think of them? Is
While the efficacy of cognitive therapy for depression is well established, every clinician is likely to encounter patients who do not respond to "standard" protocols. In this highly practical volume, leading authorities provide a unified set of clinical guidelines for conceptualizing, assessing, and treating challenging presentations of depression. Presented are detailed, flexible strategies for addressing severe, chronic, partially remitted, or recurrent depression, as well as psychiatric comorbidities, medical conditions, and family problems that may complicate treatment. The book also offers essential knowledge and tools for delivering competent care to specific populations of depressed patients: ethnic minorities; lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; adolescents; and older adults.
<p>Treating suicidal adolescents is fraught with challenges. Antidepressants may be associated with increased suicidal ideation in adolescents, although some data suggest that increased adolescent suicide rates are correlated with decreases in antidepressant prescribing. Adolescents hospitalized after a suicide attempt are likely to attempt suicide again after they are discharged. Such patients might not attend outpatient psychotherapy; a study of 167 adolescents discharged after a suicide attempt found that 26% never attended follow-up appointments and 11% went once. Emerging research supports the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for suicidal adolescents. DBT is a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy that combines individual therapy, skills training, and telephone coaching and is implemented by a therapist consultation team that meets weekly. This article reviews evidence supporting the efficacy of DBT for suicidal adolescents and describes principles of outpatient DBT for these patients as developed by Miller et al.</p>
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is currently ranked the third leading cause of disability in the world. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) causes the majority of MDD disability. Strikingly, 50% of individuals with MDD will fail to remit with 2 adequate trials of antidepressant medications, thus qualifying as treatment resistant. Current pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment strategies for TRD are limited in effectiveness, thus, new interventions are needed. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a new psychotherapeutic treatment with established efficacy in preventing relapse of depression for individuals in complete remission. MBCT is a group-based, 8-week intervention that uses mindfulness meditation as its core therapeutic technique. It teaches people to have a different relationship to depressive thoughts and feelings. Strategies are focused on decreasing rumination, enhancing self-compassion, increasing acceptance, and decreasing avoidance. This modified version of MCBT, which includes the use of metaphor and adaptations of the original intervention, will be discussed through the clinical case of a woman with long-standing TRD. A brief review of the current MBCT literature and future directions for the treatment of TRD are discussed.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The practice of yoga is associated with enhanced psychological wellbeing. The current study assessed the correlation between the duration of yoga practice with state mindfulness, mind-wandering and state anxiety. Also, we examined if an additional 20 min of yoga breathing with intermittent breath holding (experimental group) for 8 weeks would affect these psychological variables more than regular yoga practice (control group) alone. METHODS: One hundred sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 60) and control (n = 56) groups. State mindfulness attention awareness scale (SMAAS), Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and State anxiety inventory were administered at baseline and at the end of 8 weeks. RESULTS: Baseline assessment revealed a positive correlation between duration of yoga practice with SMAAS scores and negative correlation with MWQ and state anxiety scores. At the end of 8 weeks, both groups demonstrated enhanced psychological functions, but the experimental group receiving additional yoga breathing performed better than the group practicing yoga alone. CONCLUSION: An additional practice of yoga breathing with intermittent breath holding was found to enhance the psychological functions in young adult yoga practitioners.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The practice of yoga is associated with enhanced psychological wellbeing. The current study assessed the correlation between the duration of yoga practice with state mindfulness, mind-wandering and state anxiety. Also, we examined if an additional 20 min of yoga breathing with intermittent breath holding (experimental group) for 8 weeks would affect these psychological variables more than regular yoga practice (control group) alone.METHODS: One hundred sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 60) and control (n = 56) groups. State mindfulness attention awareness scale (SMAAS), Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and State anxiety inventory were administered at baseline and at the end of 8 weeks. RESULTS: Baseline assessment revealed a positive correlation between duration of yoga practice with SMAAS scores and negative correlation with MWQ and state anxiety scores. At the end of 8 weeks, both groups demonstrated enhanced psychological functions, but the experimental group receiving additional yoga breathing performed better than the group practicing yoga alone. CONCLUSION: An additional practice of yoga breathing with intermittent breath holding was found to enhance the psychological functions in young adult yoga practitioners.
Alternative therapies are promising nursing interventions for improvement of compassion fatigue in educators working in special education. A convenience sample of 27 teachers and professional staff working in special education participated in a quasi-experimental pilot study and completed a pre/posttest of demographic questions, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (10-item) and Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL). All attended a presentation on stress, compassion satisfaction (CS), mindfulness, prayer, and social support. Nearly, one half received weekly electronic text message reminders encouraging use of mindfulness and prayer. All were offered support groups. Use of alternative therapies was self-selected and self-reported. Significant improvement occurred in posttest PSS scores ( p = .0485) of participants with the highest reported levels of use of mindfulness. ProQOL CS scores ( p = .0289) and PSS scores ( p = .0244) significantly improved when evaluating difference in means between groups with the highest levels and lowest levels of prayer and mindfulness. ProQOL burnout scores ( p = <.0001) increased from pretest to posttest. Findings were not significant in regard to reminders and social support.
Despite great strides toward equity and inclusion of all students, the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds has been an issue of concern within the field of special education for decades. Of particular concern is the disproportionate representation of students from CLD backgrounds among students served within the category of emotional disturbance and students faced with exclusionary disciplinary decisions. This paper presents an overview of literature related to school- and teacher-based factors that contribute to these issues of disproportionality. It concludes with the recommendation for an integrated framework of culturally responsive practice and social emotional learning as an approach to target these factors. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; Copyright of Psychology in the Schools is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
OBJECTIVES: Adequate relief (AR) of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms (IBS-AR) has been used as a primary end point in many randomized controlled trials of IBS and is considered by the Rome III committee to be an acceptable primary end point. However, controversy exists on whether baseline severity confounds the effect of the treatment outcome. The aim (1) is to compare a subjective report of IBS-AR with global assessment of improvement (IBS-GAI), change in IBS symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS), and IBS quality of life (IBS-QOL); (2) to explore whether initial IBS symptom severity influences the ability of these outcome measures to detect differences post treatment; and (3) to determine whether psychological symptoms influence the sensitivity of these measures, in a randomized controlled treatment trial. METHODS: A total of 289 adult IBS patients were recruited to a treatment trial. Baseline IBS-SSS scores were used to classify IBS severity as mild (<175), moderate (175–300), or severe (>300). Questionnaires were completed at baseline and after 3 weeks of treatment with sham acupuncture or wait-list control. RESULTS: IBS baseline severity (IBS-SSS) significantly affected the proportion of patients who reported IBS-AR at 3 weeks (mild, 70%; moderate, 49.7%; severe, 38.8%) (P<0.05). However, once the patients who reported IBS-AR at baseline (28.0%) were excluded from the analysis, baseline severity no longer affected the proportion of patients reporting IBS-AR. Baseline severity did not have a significant effect on patients reporting moderate or significant improvement on the IBS-GAI (mild, 30%; moderate, 25.3%; severe, 18.8%) (P=NS). Psychological symptoms had no significant correlations with responders after adjusting for baseline severity. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that IBS-AR as an end point is inversely related to baseline symptom severity. However, if patients who report AR at screening were excluded from study participation, baseline symptom severity was no longer confounded with a report of AR at the study end point.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention on risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and markers of inflammation and endothelial function in overweight and obese men. DESIGN: Nonrandomized prospective lifestyle intervention study with pre-post design. SETTING AND LOCATION: Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility providing yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for prevention and management of chronic diseases. SUBJECTS: Overweight and obese men (n=51) were enrolled in the study. Subjects who were physically unable to participate and those participating in other interventions were excluded from the study. INTERVENTION: A pretested intervention program including asanas (physical postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was weight loss, and the secondary outcome measures were clinical and laboratory correlates of CVD risk, levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), adiponectin, and endothelin-1 (ET-1). RESULTS: Men (n=51, body mass index [BMI] 26.26±2.42 kg/m(2)) were enrolled and underwent a yoga-based lifestyle intervention for 10 days. Of 51 subjects, 30 completed the study. There was a significant reduction in weight from Baseline to Day 10 (74.60±7.98, 72.69±8.37 kg, p<0.001, respectively), BMI (26.26±2.42, 25.69±2.47 kg/m(2), p<0.001, respectively), and systolic BP (121.73±11.58, 116.73±9.00, p=0.042, respectively). There was a significant reduction in plasma IL-6 from Baseline to Day 10 (median 2.24 vs. 1.26 pg/mL, respectively, p=0.012). There was a significant increase in the plasma adiponectin from Baseline to Day 10 (median 4.95 vs. 6.26 μg/mL, respectively, p=0.014). Plasma ET-1 level remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that even a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention may be an important modality to reduce the risk for CVD as indicated by weight loss, reduction in systolic blood pressure, an increase in adiponectin, and decrease in IL-6 in overweight and obese men.
Background: Chronic pelvic pain in adolescents accounts for 10% of outpatient gynecology visits, and 70% of adolescent patients whose pelvic pain is unresponsive to initial therapy have endometriosis. To date, there has been no published research investigating the use of acupuncture for adolescents with chronic pelvic pain and/or endometriosis. Methods: This paper presents two case reports describing the impact of a course of acupuncture on adolescent girls with endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain of more than 1 year. Results: Both patients, undergoing between 9 and 15 treatments over a 7- to 12-week period, experienced modest improvement in pain as measured by oral self-reports of pain on a scale from 1 to 10, as well as selfor family-reported improvement in headaches, nausea and fatigue. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: These case reports provide preliminary evidence that acupuncture may be an acceptable and safe adjunct treatment therapy for some adolescents with endometriosis-related pelvic pain refractory to standard antiendometriosis therapies. These observations suggest that a prospective, randomized controlled trial of the safety and efficacy of acupuncture for this population may be warranted.
Adolescence is a time of change that can be both exciting and stressful. In this review, we focus on the central role that disturbed sleep and daytime sleepiness occupies in interactions involving substance abuse and negative health, social, and emotional outcomes. As a means of improving sleep and lowering risk for recidivism of substance abuse, we developed and implemented a six-session group treatment to treat sleep disturbances in adolescents who have received treatment for substance abuse. The components of the treatment are stimulus control instructions, use of bright light to regularize sleep, sleep hygiene education, cognitive therapy, and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Preliminary evidence indicates that participants who completed four or more sessions in the treatment program showed improved sleep and that improving sleep may lead to a reduction in substance abuse problems at the 12-month follow-up.
Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called Meditation on the Soles of the Feet to control their physical aggression in the family home and during outings in the community. They were taught to shift the focus of their attention from the negative emotions that triggered their aggressive behavior to a neutral stimulus, the soles of their feet. Prior to training in the mindfulness-based procedure the adolescents had moderate rates of aggression. During mindfulness practice, which lasted between 17 and 24 weeks, their mean rates of aggression per week decreased from 2.7, 2.5 and 3.2 to 0.9, 1.1, and 0.9, respectively, with no instances observed during the last 3 weeks of mindfulness practice. No episodes of physical aggression occurred during a 4-year follow-up. This study suggests that adolescents with Asperger syndrome may successfully use a mindfulness-based procedure to control their aggressive behavior.
Adolescents with conduct disorder frequently engage in aggressive and disruptive behaviors. Often these behaviors are controlled or managed through behavioral or other psychosocial interventions. However, such interventions do not always ensure lasting changes in an adolescent's response repertoire so that he or she does not engage in aggression when exposed to the same situations that gave rise to the behavior previously. Mindfulness training provides a treatment option that helps an individual focus and attend to conditions that give rise to maladaptive behavior.Using a multiple baseline design,we assessed the effectiveness of a mindfulness training procedure in modulating the aggressive behavior of three adolescents who were at risk of expulsion from school because of this behavior. The adolescents were able to learn the mindfulness procedure successfully and use it in situations that previously occasioned aggressive behavior.This led to large decreases in the aggression of all three individuals. Follow-up data showed that the adolescents were able to keep their aggressive behavior at socially acceptable levels in school through to graduation. Maladaptive behaviors, other than aggression, that the adolescents chose not to modify, showed no consistent change during mindfulness training, practice, and follow-up.