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Meditation and the Classroom inventively articulates how educators can use meditation to educate the whole student. Notably, a number of universities have initiated contemplative studies options and others have opened contemplative spaces. This represents an attempt to address the inner life. It is also a sign of a new era, one in which the United States is more spiritually diverse than ever before. Examples from university classrooms and statements by students indicate benefits include increased self-awareness, creativity, and compassion.The religious studies scholars who have contributed to this book often teach about meditation, but here they include reflections on how meditation has affected them and their teaching. Until recently, though, even many religious studies professors would find sharing meditation experiences, let alone teaching meditation techniques, a breach of disciplinary and academic protocols. The value of teaching meditation and teaching about meditation is discussed. Ethical issues such as pluralism, respect, qualifications, power and coercion, and avoiding actual or perceived proselytization are also examined. While methods for religious studies are emphasized, the book provides valuable guidance for all those interested in this endeavor.

<p>This thesis is composed of two parts, one a translation, the other a commentary on the material that has been translated--a set of three well known identically entitled works by the famous Indian Buddhist scholar, Kamalasila (c. 740-795 C.E.). The Bhavanakramas are here translated from both Sanskrit and Tibetan sources. The commentary takes the form of an extended critical Prologue to the texts and is centred around an examination of the notions of meditation and insight as found therein. The first chapter of the commentary examines the various terms for meditation found in the texts and argues for a specific way of translating them that regards as normative only one of these, that is, bhavana . The argument is made that if one is to take the basic Buddhist distinction between intellectual and experiential wisdom seriously, no other concept of meditation will prove satisfactory. The concept of bhavana is contrasted with that of dhyana , and explained in light of other important terms, notably samadhi, samatha and vipasyana . Two different conceptions of samadhi are identified as existing within the texts, one corresponding with dhyana and one with bhavana . The latter is identified as predominant. This conception holds that meditation is not to be principally identified as non-conceptual in nature, but rather encompasses both nonconceptual states and conceptual processes. These latter, however, are not to be identified with ordinary reasoning processes ( cintamayi prajña ) but rather with a form of experiential knowing (bhavanamayi prajña, vipasyana ) that is conceptual in nature. It is in accordance with this conception that the actual translation of the texts has been undertaken.</p>

<p>This article explores Asian traditions of meditation, with particular attention to Buddhism as it was developed in ancient India. It delineates a core curriculum, initially developed in monastic institutions of higher education, that has been most fully preserved in Tibet. It then explores how this curriculum might be adapted so that it can help support a genuinely humanistic education within American higher education. This exploration focuses not only on the inherent values of Buddhist meditation but also on practical strategies that can be used to introduce these values in the academic curriculum and in the broader campus life.</p>

This article explores Asian traditions of meditation, with particular attention toBuddhism as it was developed in ancient India. It delineates a core curriculum, initially developed in monastic institutions of higher education, that has been most fully preserved in Tibet. It then explores how this curriculum might be adapted so that it can help support a genuinely humanistic education within American higher education. This exploration focuses not only on the inherent values of Buddhist meditation but also on practical strategies that can be used to introduce these values in the academic curriculum and in the broader campus life.

<p>Psychological interest in the impact of mental states on biological functioning is growing rapidly, driving a need for new methods for inducing mental states that last long enough, and are sufficiently impactful, to have significant effects on physical health. The many traditions of meditative practice are one potential pathway for studying mind-body interactions. The purpose of this review is to introduce personality and social psychologists to the field of meditation research. Beginning with a brief introduction to meditation and the heterogeneity of meditative practices, we showcase research linking meditative practice to changes in immune and cardiovascular functioning and pain perception. We then discuss theoretical and empirical evidence that meditation works by inducing changes in psychological capacities such as emotion regulation and self-regulation or through repeated induction of specific mental states such as love or meta-cognitive awareness. At the frontier of the science of meditation is the need to empirically test whether meditation-driven changes in cognitive and affective processes are the cause of improvements in physical health. Emerging challenges in meditation research include a need for large studies using randomized controlled and dual-blind designs with active control groups and an increased focus on measuring mechanisms of action as well as outcomes. Meditation represents a potentially powerful tool for generating new knowledge of mind-body interactions.</p>

The current study examined differential patterns of interrelationships between meditators and nonmeditators on issues pertaining to psychosocial adaptation. Subjects (N=66) were randomly selected from mailing lists provided by theAssociation of Transpersonal Psychology or were solicited via classified advertising in theChicago Tribune and theDallas Morning News. The findings of the current study indicate that there are no differences between meditators and nonmeditators on level of psychosocial adaptation. However examination of the zero-order correlations between dependent measures revealed differential patterns of interrelationships within the meditator and nonmeditator groups. The findings suggest that further research is needed which expands upon the influence of meditation on psychosocial adaptation by addressing topics specific to meditative practice. The implications for the development of qualitative research methods designed to investigate psychosocial parameters in transpersonal psychology are discussed.

A Practical Guide To Meditation and Relaxation Methods, Meditation Facts, Music, Cushions, Anapana Meditation for Your Child, Exercises and Teachings of Buddha

Heart disease is the leading cause of global mortality, accounting for 13.7 million deaths annually. Optimising depression and anxiety symptoms in adults with heart disease is an international priority. Heart disease secondary prevention is best achieved through implementation of sustainable pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, including meditation. Meditation is a means of generating self-awareness and has implications for enhanced self-management of depression and anxiety symptoms. This review aims to identify high-level quantitative evidence for meditation interventions designed to improve depression and/or anxiety symptoms among adults with heart disease and ascertain the most important elements of meditation interventions that facilitate positive depression and/or anxiety outcomes. This systematic review and narrative synthesis was completed in accordance with the PRISMA Statement and has adhered to the Cochrane Risk of Bias guideline. Six databases were searched between 1975 and 2017. Statistically significant outcomes were demonstrated in over half (5/9) of phase II meditation studies for depression and/or anxiety and involved 477 participants. Meditation interventions that generated positive outcomes for depression and/or anxiety included elements such as focused attention to body parts (or body scan) (3/4 studies) and/or group meetings (4/5 studies). Meditation is a means of reframing heart disease outpatient services towards an integrated model of care. Future adequately powered phase III studies are needed to confirm which meditation elements are associated with reductions in depression and anxiety; and the differential effects between concentrative and mindfulness-based meditation types among adults with heart disease.

According to Buddhist teachings, when we understand the interconnection of all of life, then we can act with the ease of uncontrived altruism. We act with simple goodness. Whether they are personal and direct or take place in the larger arena of social change, our actions arise out of a wholesome state of mind rather than out of fear and anxiety. With clear vision, we see that we are all a part of each other's life and journey toward liberation. This knowledge forms the spirit with which we do meditation practice, and the way in which we bring that practice into our daily lives. With greater awareness, often formed and refined in meditation, we begin to see that we are essentially no different from each other, no matter who we are. We all share the urge toward happiness,and not one of us leaves this earth never having suffered. This view of interconnectedness may not give us the ability, the means, oreven the inclination to do a political analysis of a situation or to engage in systematic social change, but it does give us an unfeigned goodheartedness. It gives us an urge to include rather than to exclude, to care rather than to reject someone else's problem as having nothing to do with us. This is the consciousness of social transformation.

Meditation and Yoga techniques are receiving increased attention throughout the world, due to the accumulation of evidence based research that proves the direct and indirect benefits of such practices. Based on studies conducted so far, it has been found that the practice of meditation triggers neurotransmitters that modulate psychological disorders such as anxiety. This paper will review the psychological effects of the practice of meditation, the role of neurotransmitters, and studies using EEG and fMRI.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and debilitating disorder that affects the lives of 7-8% of adults in the U.S. Although several interventions demonstrate clinical effectiveness for treating PTSD, many patients continue to have residual symptoms and ask for a variety of treatment options. Complementary health approaches, such as meditation and yoga, hold promise for treating symptoms of PTSD. This meta-analysis evaluates the effect size (ES) of yoga and meditation on PTSD outcomes in adult patients. We also examined whether the intervention type, PTSD outcome measure, study population, sample size, or control condition moderated the effects of complementary approaches on PTSD outcomes. The studies included were 19 randomized control trials with data on 1173 participants. A random effects model yielded a statistically significant ES in the small to medium range (ES=-0.39, p<0.001, 95% CI [-0.57, -0.22]). There were no appreciable differences between intervention types, study population, outcome measures, or control condition. There was, however, a marginally significant higher ES for sample size</=30 (ES=-0.78, k=5). These findings suggest that meditation and yoga are promising complementary approaches in the treatment of PTSD among adults and warrant further study.

Mindfulness has been practiced in the Eastern world for over twenty-five centuries but has only recently become popular in the West. Today, interventions such as “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy” are used within the Western health setting and have proven to be successful techniques for reducing psychological distress. However, a limitation of such interventions is that they tend to apply the practices of mindfulness in an “out of context” manner. To overcome this, a newly formed Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) program focusses on the establishment of solid meditative foundations and integrates various support practices that are traditionally assumed to effectuate a more sustainable quality of well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of MAT for improving psychological well-being in a sub-clinical sample of higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Utilizing a controlled design, participants of the study (n = 14) undertook an 8-week MAT program and comparisons were made with a control group (n = 11) on measures of self-assessed psychological well-being (emotional distress, positive affect, and negative affect) and dispositional mindfulness. Participants who received MAT showed significant improvements in psychological well-being and dispositional mindfulness over controls. MAT may increase emotion regulation ability in higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Individuals receiving training in mindfulness meditation may benefit by engendering a broader, more ethically informed, and compassionate intention for their mindfulness practice.

A new mouse study reveals a set of neurons that may point to physiological roots for the benefits of breathing control

Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services | Q: How did you become involved in meditation as a clinical intervention?Hulen S. Kornfeld, RN, MA: I very often lead groups of nurses, nurse's aids, or volunteers who are going to be working with the terminally ill. I bring in the nursing perspective. Several years ago, when I was taking a course for hospice volunteers, the leader stressed that we must realize that you can't make it better,


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