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Despite the call for multilevel observation of negative affect, including multiple physiological systems, too little empirical research has been conducted in infants and young children, and physiology-affect associations are not consistently reported. We examined changes in heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and preejection period in 24-month-olds across four increasingly challenging, emotion-eliciting tasks. We predicted that changes in cardiac reactivity would be systematically related to changes in negative affect. Results largely support the predictions with one important exception. With increasing distress across the tasks, HR increased and RSA decreased. However, no significant changes in PEP were observed. HR was associated with negative affect during all tasks, and changes in HR were related to changes in negative affect. PEP and negative affect were associated, but only marginally so. Within-subject analyses confirmed the predicted associations. Finally, the associations between physiology and negative affect were different for boys and girls. We discuss these results in the context of implications for future research on cardiac-affect associations in young children.
Three experiments were performed testing the effects of a variety of impedance cardiograph electrode types and recording arrangements on recorded electroencephalography (EEG) using either a monopolar single-ear reference or a physically linked ears reference. EEG was recorded either alone or concurrently with an impedance cardiograph. When the cardiograph was recorded using a spot electrode for the top current-inducing electrode, there was an overall decrease in power density of the EEG, and this effect was dependent on the location of the recording electrode. This effect was diminished when the top cardiograph spot electrode was replaced by a mylar-coated neck band electrode and EEG was recorded using a monopolar, single-ear reference. However, there tended to be an overall increase in log power density of the EEG in each frequency band below 60 Hz when less technologically advanced EEG amplifiers were used. This effect was diminished if the EEG was recorded using a physically linked ears reference. Recommendations for the concurrent recording of EEG and impedance cardiography are discussed.