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"Analysis of the debate over mahāmudrā between Sa skya pas and Bka' brgyud pas; contains much useful information on and extracts from the writings of Sgam po pa and Zhang tshal pa" (Roger R. Jackson, “Mahāmudrā,” in Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Lindsay Jones, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005), vol. 8, p. 5601).

Very detailed analysis of the history and variations within the Theravada and Tibetan traditions of meditation on the Four Immeasurables. Berzin selectively translates and compares many of the major texts describing these attitudes and their practice.

In this first part of a two-part paper, Broido tries to understand Padma Karpo's (pad ma dkar po) explanation of tantra in general as ground, path and goal (gzhi, lam, 'bras bu) found within his treatise on Vajrayāna entitled Jo bo nāropa'i khyad chos bsre 'pho'i gzhung 'grel rdo rje 'chang gi dgongs pa gsal bar byed pa. Broido explores the interpretation of these concepts by several other commentators before going into an extended analysis of Padma Karpo's comments. The Tibetan text of Padma Karpo's summary of ground, path, and goal are given in an appendix. (BJN)

Creator's Description: The Commentary on Enlightened Attitude (Bodhicittavivaraṇa), which is attributed to the tantric Nāgārjuna (fl. 200 CE), takes the ultimate enlightened attitude (bodhicitta) as a direct realization of emptiness, and follows a positive approach to the ultimate, like the sūtras of and commentaries on the third wheel of the doctrine (dharmacakra). Taking this as Nāgārjuna’s final position, the Commentary on Enlightened Attitude gains an important status for those who see in the third wheel of the doctrine teachings of definitive meaning. The present paper shows that ’Gos lo tsā ba gzhon nu dpal (1392-1481) and his disciple the Fourth Zhwa dmar pa Chos grags ye shes (1453-1524) follow this approach, but take positive descriptions of the ultimate in the third wheel of the doctrine as the result of a direct experience of emptiness beyond the duality of perceiving subject and perceived object. Standing in the Great Seal (Mahāmudrā) tradition of the Dwags po bka’ brgyud, an ultimate existence of mind, such that self-awareness or the perfect nature exists as an entity, is not accepted by them.

A key early fifteenth-century Tibetan historical work that includes all the main schools of Tibetan Buddhism as they existed up to the fifteenth-century, but mainly focused on the Kagyü (bka' brgyud) schools. (BJN)


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