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Many scholars have made the call for teacher educators to provide experiences that can lead preservice teachers to embrace a culturally responsive pedagogy. We investigated the use of brief autobiographies during an internship as a tool (a) for preservice teachers to examine their multidimensional culture; and (b) for teacher educators to assess preservice teachers' developing understandings about cultural responsive pedagogy and then further design curriculum to enhance these understandings. Using qualitative methods, we analyzed the preservice teachers' (N = 24) autobiographies and an interview with the professor of this course. Based on the findings of this study, we suggest teacher educators need to develop experiences and opportunities that will enable preservice teachers to reflect on how culture impacts teaching and learning behaviors. Therefore, preservice teachers will be better prepared to teach all students.

The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness is the first of its kind in the field, and its appearance marks a unique time in the history of intellectual inquiry on the topic. After decades during which consciousness was considered beyond the scope of legitimate scientific investigation, consciousness re-emerged as a popular focus of research towards the end of the last century, and it has remained so for nearly 20 years. There are now so many different lines of investigation on consciousness that the time has come when the field may finally benefit from a book that pulls them together and, by juxtaposing them, provides a comprehensive survey of this exciting field. An authoritative desk reference, which will also be suitable as an advanced textbook.

Dynamic and static body postures are a defining characteristic of mind-body practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that TCQ may be beneficial for psychological health, including management and prevention of depression and anxiety. Although a variety of causal factors have been identified as potential mediators of such health benefits, physical posture, despite its visible prominence, has been largely overlooked. We hypothesize that body posture while standing and/or moving may be a key therapeutic element mediating the influence of TCQ on psychological health. In the present paper, we summarize existing experimental and observational evidence that suggests a bi-directional relationship between body posture and mental states. Drawing from embodied cognitive science, we provide a theoretical framework for further investigation into this interrelationship. We discuss the challenges involved in such an investigation and propose suggestions for future studies. Despite theoretical and practical challenges, we propose that the role of posture in mind-body exercises such as TCQ should be considered in future research.

PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a distressing consequence of cancer and its treatment. CRF impacts many young adult (YA) survivors of childhood cancer, compromising work, social relationships, and daily activities. No satisfactory treatment exists. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility, safety, and preliminary efficacy of an 8-week twice/week Iyengar yoga (IY) intervention for treating persistent fatigue in YA survivors of childhood cancer.METHODS: Using a single-arm mixed-methods design, adult childhood cancer survivors aged between 18 and 39 years were recruited from a survivorship clinic at a single institution. Quantitative: The primary outcome was fatigue as measured by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue. Secondary outcomes included vitality, social functioning, multidimensional fatigue, mood, and sleep. Weekly self-report monitoring data were collected. Qualitative: Participants also completed a post-intervention interview, major themes evaluated. RESULTS: Five participants enrolled into the study and four completed the intervention. Attendance was 92% and there were no adverse events. Baseline mobility was highly varied, with one YA having had a hemipelvectomy. Quantitative data revealed significantly improved fatigue, social functioning, somatization, and general and emotional manifestations of fatigue following yoga. Qualitative data cross validated, clarified, and expanded upon the quantitative findings. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that a brief IY intervention is safe for YA survivors of childhood cancer, even for those with physical disabilities. Preliminary efficacy was demonstrated for the primary outcome of fatigue. Qualitative data elucidated additional improvements, such as work-related social functioning, and a sense of calm and relaxation.

PURPOSE: An increasing number of cancer patients are choosing Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) as an active way to manage the physical, psychological, and spiritual consequences of cancer. This trend parallels a movement to understand how a difficult experience, such as a cancer diagnosis, may help facilitate positive growth, also referred to as benefit finding. Little is known about the associations between the use of CAM and the ability to find benefit in the cancer experience. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of medical oncology outpatients in an urban academic cancer center. Patients completed measures of CAM use and benefit finding following a diagnosis of cancer. A hierarchical regression, adjusting for covariates, was performed to evaluate the unique contribution of CAM use on benefit finding. The relationship between specific CAM modalities and benefit finding was explored. RESULTS: Among 316 participants, 193 (61.3%) reported CAM use following diagnosis. Factors associated with CAM use were female gender (p=0.005); college, or higher, education (p=0.09); breast cancer diagnosis (p=0.016); and being 12 to 36 months post-diagnosis (p=0.017). In the hierarchical regression, race contributed the greatest unique variance to benefit finding (23%), followed by time from diagnosis (18%), and age (14%). Adjusting for covariates, CAM use uniquely accounted for 13% of the variance in benefit finding. Individuals using energy healing and healing arts reported significantly more benefit than nonusers. Special diet, herbal remedies, vitamin use, and massage saw a smaller increase in benefit finding, while acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, relaxation, yoga, and tai chi were not significantly associated with benefit finding. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who used CAM following a cancer diagnosis reported higher levels of benefit finding than those who did not. More research is required to evaluate the causal relationship between CAM use, benefit finding, and better psychosocial well-being.

We present a novel data smoothing and analysis framework for cortical thickness data defined on the brain cortical manifold. Gaussian kernel smoothing, which weights neighboring observations according to their 3D Euclidean distance, has been widely used in 3D brain images to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. When the observations lie on a convoluted brain surface, however, it is more natural to assign the weights based on the geodesic distance along the surface. We therefore develop a framework for geodesic distance-based kernel smoothing and statistical analysis on the cortical manifolds. As an illustration, we apply our methods in detecting the regions of abnormal cortical thickness in 16 high functioning autistic children via random field based multiple comparison correction that utilizes the new smoothing technique.
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There is a growing body of research on yoga as a therapeutic intervention for psychological symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied by speculations on underlying physiologic mechanisms. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, qualitatively evaluate, and synthesize studies of yoga as an intervention for PTSD that measured physiologic outcomes in order to gain insights into potential mechanisms. The focus is on studies evaluating yoga as a therapeutic intervention for PTSD rather than for trauma exposure, PTSD prevention, or subclinical PTSD. Multiple databases were searched for publications from the past two decades using terms derived from the question, "In people with PTSD, what is the effect of yoga on objective outcomes?" Eligibility criteria included yoga-only modalities tested as an intervention for formally diagnosed PTSD with at least one physiologic outcome. Results of this review confirmed that, though much of the published literature proposes physiological mechanisms underlying yoga's effects on PTSD, very few studies ( n = 3) have actually evaluated physiological evidence. Additionally, several studies had methodological limitations. In light of the limited data supporting yoga's beneficial effects on autonomic nervous system dysregulation, we present a theoretical model of the psychoneuroimmunologic processes associated with PTSD and the effects yoga may have on these processes to guide future research. Gaps in the literature remain for mechanisms related to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation. Additional rigorous mechanistic studies are needed to guide development of effective yoga interventions for PTSD to augment existing evidence-based PTSD treatments.

There is a growing body of research on yoga as a therapeutic intervention for psychological symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied by speculations on underlying physiologic mechanisms. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, qualitatively evaluate, and synthesize studies of yoga as an intervention for PTSD that measured physiologic outcomes in order to gain insights into potential mechanisms. The focus is on studies evaluating yoga as a therapeutic intervention for PTSD rather than for trauma exposure, PTSD prevention, or subclinical PTSD. Multiple databases were searched for publications from the past two decades using terms derived from the question, "In people with PTSD, what is the effect of yoga on objective outcomes?" Eligibility criteria included yoga-only modalities tested as an intervention for formally diagnosed PTSD with at least one physiologic outcome. Results of this review confirmed that, though much of the published literature proposes physiological mechanisms underlying yoga's effects on PTSD, very few studies ( n = 3) have actually evaluated physiological evidence. Additionally, several studies had methodological limitations. In light of the limited data supporting yoga's beneficial effects on autonomic nervous system dysregulation, we present a theoretical model of the psychoneuroimmunologic processes associated with PTSD and the effects yoga may have on these processes to guide future research. Gaps in the literature remain for mechanisms related to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation. Additional rigorous mechanistic studies are needed to guide development of effective yoga interventions for PTSD to augment existing evidence-based PTSD treatments.

Research has suggested that mindfulness and acceptance may be important factors in the development, maintenance and treatment of both obesity and eating disorders. However, very few scales exist that apply constructs of acceptance and mindfulness to eating behavior. A measure of acceptance about food related thoughts would be especially beneficial in investigating links between acceptance and problematic eating, and in better understanding mechanisms of action of effective treatments for obesity and eating disorders. The Food Acceptance and Awareness Questionnaire (FAAQ) was developed to measure acceptance of urges and cravings to eat or the extent to which individuals might try to control or change these thoughts. The FAAQ is a self-report questionnaire made up of ten items each rated on a seven-point Likert scale (1=very seldom true to 6=always true). Higher scores indicate greater acceptance of motivations to eat. The FAAQ was given to a sample of 463 undergraduate students along with several other measures of eating behavior and other psychological variables. Concurrent associations with variables theorized to be closely linked (Eating Attitudes Test, EAT; the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, DEBQ; body mass index, BMI) and not very closely linked (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, DASS) were evaluated in order to indicate the new scale's convergent and divergent validity. These results demonstrated highly significant correlations with these measures in the expected direction, with stronger correlations for the theoretically-consistent variables than the theoretically-inconsistent variables. Exploratory factor analyses confirmed a structural two-factor model. Factor 1 seems to measure one's ability to regulate eating despite urges and cravings, and Factor 2 seems to measure desire to maintain internal control over eating thoughts. The FAAQ was also administered to a separate sample of 29 overweight or obese women enrolled in a weight loss program, and found to be predictive of weight loss. Taken together, results suggest that the FAAQ is a psychometrically sound instrument which might be a valuable tool for assessing acceptance of food related thoughts and urges.

Background. The assessment of intervention integrity is essential in psychotherapeutic intervention outcome research and psychotherapist training. There has been little attention given to it in mindfulness-based interventions research, training programs, and practice. Aims. To address this, the Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Teaching Assessment Criteria (MBI:TAC) was developed. This article describes the MBI:TAC and its development and presents initial data on reliability and validity. Method. Sixteen assessors from three centers evaluated teaching integrity of 43 teachers using the MBI:TAC. Results. Internal consistency (α = .94) and interrater reliability (overall intraclass correlation coefficient = .81; range = .60-.81) were high. Face and content validity were established through the MBI:TAC development process. Data on construct validity were acceptable. Conclusions. Initial data indicate that the MBI:TAC is a reliable and valid tool. It can be used in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction/Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy outcome evaluation research, training and pragmatic practice settings, and in research to assess the impact of teaching integrity on participant outcome.

BACKGROUND:Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse/recurrence. Maintenance antidepressant medication (m-ADM) for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to m-ADM. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence compared with usual care but has not yet been compared with m-ADM in a definitive trial. OBJECTIVES: To establish whether MBCT with support to taper and/or discontinue antidepressant medication (MBCT-TS) is superior to and more cost-effective than an approach of m-ADM in a primary care setting for patients with a history of recurrent depression followed up over a 2-year period in terms of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence. Secondary aims examined MBCT's acceptability and mechanism of action. DESIGN: Single-blind, parallel, individual randomised controlled trial. SETTING: UK general practices. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with a diagnosis of recurrent depression and who were taking m-ADM. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised to MBCT-TS or m-ADM with stratification by centre and symptomatic status. Outcome data were collected blind to treatment allocation and the primary analysis was based on the principle of intention to treat. Process studies using quantitative and qualitative methods examined MBCT's acceptability and mechanism of action. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was time to relapse/recurrence of depression. At each follow-up the following secondary outcomes were recorded: number of depression-free days, residual depressive symptoms, quality of life, health-related quality of life and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. RESULTS: In total, 212 patients were randomised to MBCT-TS and 212 to m-ADM. The primary analysis did not find any evidence that MBCT-TS was superior to m-ADM in terms of the primary outcome of time to depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months [hazard ratio (HR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 1.18] or for any of the secondary outcomes. Cost-effectiveness analysis did not support the hypothesis that MBCT-TS is more cost-effective than m-ADM in terms of either relapse/recurrence or quality-adjusted life-years. In planned subgroup analyses, a significant interaction was found between treatment group and reported childhood abuse (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.38), with delayed time to relapse/recurrence for MBCT-TS participants with a more abusive childhood compared with those with a less abusive history. Although changes in mindfulness were specific to MBCT (and not m-ADM), they did not predict outcome in terms of relapse/recurrence at 24 months. In terms of acceptability, the qualitative analyses suggest that many people have views about (dis)/continuing their ADM, which can serve as a facilitator or a barrier to taking part in a trial that requires either continuation for 2 years or discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: There is no support for the hypothesis that MBCT-TS is superior to m-ADM in preventing depressive relapse/recurrence among individuals at risk for depressive relapse/recurrence. Both treatments appear to confer protection against relapse/recurrence. There is an indication that MBCT may be most indicated for individuals at greatest risk of relapse/recurrence. It is important to characterise those most at risk and carefully establish if and why MBCT may be most indicated for this group.

Yoga practice is known to improve well-being and decrease stress. However, acute yoga is understudied. This study investigated the effects of two different types of yoga on affect and salivary cortisol levels in college women. Thirty-three women aged 18-30 years each completed 1-hour sessions of power yoga and stretch yoga. Measures of affect and salivary cortisol were assessed before, during, and after each session. Participants perceived power yoga to be more pleasurable and energizing. Salivary cortisol significantly decreased after both yoga sessions. Thus, even one session of yoga may be effective in improving affect and decreasing stress in college women.

Yoga practice is known to improve well-being and decrease stress. However, acute yoga is understudied. This study investigated the effects of two different types of yoga on affect and salivary cortisol levels in college women. Thirty-three women aged 18-30 years each completed 1-hour sessions of power yoga and stretch yoga. Measures of affect and salivary cortisol were assessed before, during, and after each session. Participants perceived power yoga to be more pleasurable and energizing. Salivary cortisol significantly decreased after both yoga sessions. Thus, even one session of yoga may be effective in improving affect and decreasing stress in college women.

Social and emotional learning (SEL) has predominantly been conceptualised as a neurological process, which has precluded understanding of how social, cultural and material discourses inform the expression of emotional experiences. Gender remains a notable omission. This article explores the micro-practices through which gender structures the development of young people's emotional subjectivities within the context of a school-based SEL intervention. Particular emphasis is placed on the gendering strategies utilised by educational professionals during the course of their emotional pedagogy. Three strategies are considered: the overt coercion of girls to demonstrate their learning; the permission of boys' passivity, with their docile bodies being indicated as a signifier of participation; and the restricting of occasions for emotional expression in accordance with perceived gender norms. Efforts to inculcate students with a gendered emotional subjectivity mean that differential learning opportunities are on offer, raising concerns about the introduction of new forms of gendered educational inequalities.

In his talk entitled, “Ethics of Science and Experience in the Age of the Anthropocene,” Dr. Evan Thompson explores the relationship between science and contemplative practice in the context of our current geological age of human impact on planet Earth. Using the concept of the “lifeworld” originated by the German Phenomenologist Edmund Husserl, Dr. Thompson explores how the natural sciences arose from an attempt to bypass their origin in our subjective lived experience. The global crises we now face demand that science adopt a new ethics and culture arising out of an “indigenous” world view that is cosmopolitan in the true sense of the word: We must all learn to see ourselves as citizens of a single global community.

This study examined an experiential avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination in 3 ways: 1) associations among questionnaire measures of rumination, experiential avoidance, and fear of emotions; 2) performance on a dichotic listening task that highlights preferences for nondepressive material; and 3) psychophysiological reactivity in an avoidance paradigm modeled after the one used by Borkovec and colleagues (1993) in their examination of worry. One hundred and thirty eight undergraduates completed questionnaire measures and participated in a clinical interview to diagnose current and past episodes of depression. Of those, 100 were randomly assigned to a rumination or relaxation induction condition and participated in a dichotic listening task, rumination/relaxation induction, and depression induction. Questionnaire measures confirmed a relationship between rumination status and avoidance; however, no significant effects were found in the dichotic listening task. Psychophysiological measures indicated no difference in physiological response to a depression induction among high ruminators (HR). However, low ruminators (LR) in the relaxation condition exhibited a larger IBI response than LR in the rumination condition. Overall, these results provide partial support for an avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Depression co-occurs in 20% of people with cardiovascular disorders, can persist for years and predicts worse physical health outcomes. While psychosocial treatments have been shown to treat acute depression effectively in those with comorbid cardiovascular disorders, to date, there has been no evaluation of approaches aiming to prevent relapse and treat residual depression symptoms in this group. Consequently, the current study aimed to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial design evaluating an adapted version of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) designed specifically for people with comorbid depression and cardiovascular disorders. A three-arm feasibility randomised controlled trial was conducted, comparing MBCT adapted for people with cardiovascular disorders plus treatment as usual (TAU), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) plus TAU and TAU alone. Participants completed a set of self-report measures of depression severity, anxiety, quality of life, illness perceptions, mindfulness, self-compassion and affect and had their blood pressure taken immediately before, after and 3 months following the intervention. Those in the adapted-MBCT arm additionally underwent a qualitative interview to gather their views about the adapted intervention. Three thousand four hundred potentially eligible participants were approached when attending an outpatient appointment at a cardiology clinic or via a GP letter following a case note search. Two hundred forty-two (7.1%) were interested in taking part, 59 (1.7%) were screened as being suitable and 33 (< 1%) were eventually randomised to the three groups. Of 11 participants randomised to adapted-MBCT, 7 completed the full course, levels of home mindfulness practice were high and positive qualitative feedback about the intervention was given. Twenty-nine out of 33 randomised participants completed all the assessment measures at all three time points. The means Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 scores for the MBCT-Heart and Living Mindfully (HeLM) group were lower at post-intervention and at the 3-month follow-up compared to the MBSR and TAU groups. The sample was heterogeneous in terms of whether they reported current depression or had a history of depression and the time since the onset of cardiovascular disorders (1 to 25 years). The adapted-MBCT intervention was feasible and acceptable to participants; however, certain aspects of the trial design were not. In particular, low recruitment rates were achieved and there was a high withdrawal rate between screening and randomisation. Moreover, the heterogeneity in the sample was high, meaning the adapted intervention was unlikely to be well tailored to all the participants needs. This suggests that if the decision is made to move to a definitive trial, study recruitment procedures will need to be revised to recruit a target sample that optimally matches the adapted intervention.

Depression co-occurs in 20% of people with cardiovascular disorders, can persist for years and predicts worse physical health outcomes. While psychosocial treatments have been shown to treat acute depression effectively in those with comorbid cardiovascular disorders, to date, there has been no evaluation of approaches aiming to prevent relapse and treat residual depression symptoms in this group. Consequently, the current study aimed to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial design evaluating an adapted version of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) designed specifically for people with comorbid depression and cardiovascular disorders. A three-arm feasibility randomised controlled trial was conducted, comparing MBCT adapted for people with cardiovascular disorders plus treatment as usual (TAU), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) plus TAU and TAU alone. Participants completed a set of self-report measures of depression severity, anxiety, quality of life, illness perceptions, mindfulness, self-compassion and affect and had their blood pressure taken immediately before, after and 3 months following the intervention. Those in the adapted-MBCT arm additionally underwent a qualitative interview to gather their views about the adapted intervention. Three thousand four hundred potentially eligible participants were approached when attending an outpatient appointment at a cardiology clinic or via a GP letter following a case note search. Two hundred forty-two (7.1%) were interested in taking part, 59 (1.7%) were screened as being suitable and 33 (< 1%) were eventually randomised to the three groups. Of 11 participants randomised to adapted-MBCT, 7 completed the full course, levels of home mindfulness practice were high and positive qualitative feedback about the intervention was given. Twenty-nine out of 33 randomised participants completed all the assessment measures at all three time points. The means Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 scores for the MBCT-Heart and Living Mindfully (HeLM) group were lower at post-intervention and at the 3-month follow-up compared to the MBSR and TAU groups. The sample was heterogeneous in terms of whether they reported current depression or had a history of depression and the time since the onset of cardiovascular disorders (1 to 25 years). The adapted-MBCT intervention was feasible and acceptable to participants; however, certain aspects of the trial design were not. In particular, low recruitment rates were achieved and there was a high withdrawal rate between screening and randomisation. Moreover, the heterogeneity in the sample was high, meaning the adapted intervention was unlikely to be well tailored to all the participants needs. This suggests that if the decision is made to move to a definitive trial, study recruitment procedures will need to be revised to recruit a target sample that optimally matches the adapted intervention.

Over recent decades, there has been an exponential growth in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). To disseminate MBIs with fidelity, care needs to be taken with the training and supervision of MBI teachers. A wealth of literature exists describing the process and practice of supervision in a range of clinical approaches, but, as of yet, little consideration has been given to how this can best be applied to the supervision of MBI teachers. This paper articulates a framework for supervision of MBI teachers. It was informed by the following: the experience of eight experienced mindfulness-based supervisors, the literature and understandings from MBIs, and by the authors’ experience of training and supervision. It sets out the nature and distinctive features of mindfulness-based supervision (MBS), representing this complex, multilayered process through a series of circles that denote its essence, form, content and process. This paper aims to be a basis for further dialogue on MBS, providing a foundation to increase the availability of competent supervision so that MBIs can expand without compromising integrity and efficacy.

Over recent decades, there has been an exponential growth in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). To disseminate MBIs with fidelity, care needs to be taken with the training and supervision of MBI teachers. A wealth of literature exists describing the process and practice of supervision in a range of clinical approaches, but, as of yet, little consideration has been given to how this can best be applied to the supervision of MBI teachers. This paper articulates a framework for supervision of MBI teachers. It was informed by the following: the experience of eight experienced mindfulness-based supervisors, the literature and understandings from MBIs, and by the authors’ experience of training and supervision. It sets out the nature and distinctive features of mindfulness-based supervision (MBS), representing this complex, multilayered process through a series of circles that denote its essence, form, content and process. This paper aims to be a basis for further dialogue on MBS, providing a foundation to increase the availability of competent supervision so that MBIs can expand without compromising integrity and efficacy.

Over recent decades, there has been an exponential growth in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). To disseminate MBIs with fidelity, care needs to be taken with the training and supervision of MBI teachers. A wealth of literature exists describing the process and practice of supervision in a range of clinical approaches, but, as of yet, little consideration has been given to how this can best be applied to the supervision of MBI teachers. This paper articulates a framework for supervision of MBI teachers. It was informed by the following: the experience of eight experienced mindfulness-based supervisors, the literature and understandings from MBIs, and by the authors’ experience of training and supervision. It sets out the nature and distinctive features of mindfulness-based supervision (MBS), representing this complex, multilayered process through a series of circles that denote its essence, form, content and process. This paper aims to be a basis for further dialogue on MBS, providing a foundation to increase the availability of competent supervision so that MBIs can expand without compromising integrity and efficacy.

Over recent decades, there has been an exponential growth in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). To disseminate MBIs with fidelity, care needs to be taken with the training and supervision of MBI teachers. A wealth of literature exists describing the process and practice of supervision in a range of clinical approaches, but, as of yet, little consideration has been given to how this can best be applied to the supervision of MBI teachers. This paper articulates a framework for supervision of MBI teachers. It was informed by the following: the experience of eight experienced mindfulness-based supervisors, the literature and understandings from MBIs, and by the authors’ experience of training and supervision. It sets out the nature and distinctive features of mindfulness-based supervision (MBS), representing this complex, multilayered process through a series of circles that denote its essence, form, content and process. This paper aims to be a basis for further dialogue on MBS, providing a foundation to increase the availability of competent supervision so that MBIs can expand without compromising integrity and efficacy.

Over recent decades, there has been an exponential growth in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). To disseminate MBIs with fidelity, care needs to be taken with the training and supervision of MBI teachers. A wealth of literature exists describing the process and practice of supervision in a range of clinical approaches, but, as of yet, little consideration has been given to how this can best be applied to the supervision of MBI teachers. This paper articulates a framework for supervision of MBI teachers. It was informed by the following: the experience of eight experienced mindfulness-based supervisors, the literature and understandings from MBIs, and by the authors’ experience of training and supervision. It sets out the nature and distinctive features of mindfulness-based supervision (MBS), representing this complex, multilayered process through a series of circles that denote its essence, form, content and process. This paper aims to be a basis for further dialogue on MBS, providing a foundation to increase the availability of competent supervision so that MBIs can expand without compromising integrity and efficacy.

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