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Procrastination is prevalent among students and is associated with negative outcomes, including poor academic performance and psychological distress. Research also suggests that anxiety and depression can exacerbate procrastination; however, the mechanisms associated with the development of procrastination are less understood. The current study aimed to clarify the role of negative repetitive thought (i.e., rumination and worry) in the links between anxiety and procrastination, and depression and procrastination. Ninety-one undergraduate students completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, worry, brooding rumination, and procrastination, and two multiple mediator models were tested. Procrastination was positively correlated with the study variables, including medium effects for anxiety and depression, a large effect for rumination, and a small effect for worry. Rumination independently mediated the relationships between anxiety and procrastination, and depression and procrastination. Worry did not independently mediate these relationships. The current findings suggest rumination plays a larger role in the links between anxiety, depression, and procrastination than worry. Thus, students with higher levels of anxiety and depression engage in more negative repetitive thought, which may contribute to procrastinatory behavior as a result of a preoccupation with depressing or painful thoughts about the past.

Mindfulness has been associated with better psychological and physical health; although, the mechanisms of these benefits are poorly understood. We explored the role of mindfulness in stress-health pathways among undergraduates at a large public university. Participants reported on demographic and academic variables and completed data collection at two time points during the academic semester, approximately one month apart. At each collection, measures of mindfulness, perceived stress, and psychological well-being were gathered. Students provided two days of home-based saliva collection for assessment of cortisol. Mean scores were computed for each of the measures, over the two assessments. Hierarchical multiple regressions adjusting for GPA, hours of paid employment per week, minority status, and living situation explored the impact of mindfulness in our stress-health model. Students with higher dispositional mindfulness reported significantly less perceived stress and had lower overall mean diurnal cortisol. Mindfulness was associated with greater psychological well-being. Exploratory analyses suggested that future research should explore the potential mediating or moderating relationships between mindfulness, perceived stress, and cortisol. Findings suggest that mindfulness may help attenuate both psychological and physiological stress responses to college stress.

During the past 30 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of cancer in adolescents. While recent studies have illustrated remarkable resilience in youth living with cancer, they can also face daunting acute and chronic adjustment struggles, cognitive and school problems, family and peer relational difficulties, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and other anxiety disorders. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), increasingly shown to be effective in a variety of medical and mental health settings, may be particularly beneficial for adolescents with cancer. This paper reviews evidence from clinical trials of MBIs showing a variety of benefits for adult cancer patients, adolescents with anxiety disorders and chronic pain, and clinically healthy teenagers, which collectively point to likely benefits of MBIs for teen cancer patients. The authors also explore ways that the particular psychological problems often faced by teen cancer patients, including anxiety about the future, may be especially well suited to mindfulness approaches such as learning to observe physical sensations, thoughts, and emotions, as well as cultivating compassion towards themselves and others. The paper concludes with an exploration of unanswered and potential research questions regarding the future use of MBIs with adolescents with cancer, and potentially with teenagers with other chronic diseases.

In this study, I explore my practices as a teacher educator in one course both before and after returning to the K-12 classroom to teach secondary language learners for one academic year. By examining the intersection of self-study and practice-based teacher education, I illustrate how I used self-study as a mechanism for innovation and change and focus on the challenges I encountered in implementing the use of practice-based education in my work as a teacher educator. Qualitative data analysis revealed that in redesigning my approach to my course, I stopped short of my goals to make the course more practice-centered. Although I provided students with many opportunities to practice planning, I did not provide enough focused opportunities to practice implementation and to participate in giving and receiving feedback. I learned that engaging teachers in practice-based teaching requires teacher educators to be both specific and deliberate in setting their own purposes for establishing the centrality of practice in their courses and to explain these clearly to teacher candidates. Further work in which teacher educators study their use of practice-based pedagogy would benefit from using a self-study lens. Other researchers are urged to add to the limited body of research about the use of practice-based pedagogy with teachers of language learners, particularly English language learners.

This article tests the hypothesis that children's learning environment will improve through a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention that provides preschool teachers with new skills to manage children's disruptive behavior by reporting results from the Foundations of Learning (FOL) Demonstration, a place-randomized, experimental evaluation conducted by MDRC. Research Findings: Findings demonstrate that the FOL intervention improved teachers' ability to address children's behavior problems and to provide a positive emotional climate in their classrooms. Importantly, the FOL intervention also improved the number of minutes of instructional time, although the quality of teachers' instruction was not improved. Finally, FOL benefited children's observed behavior in classrooms, with lower levels of conflictual interactions and, at the trend level, higher levels of engagement in classrooms activities, relative to similar students randomly assigned to control classrooms. Practice or Policy: This study is one of an emerging body of research on the efficacy of SEL programs for preschool children living in poverty. Understanding the value-added of these programs (e.g., in increased instructional time and increased classroom engagement) as well as their limitations (e.g., in teachers' instructional quality and children's academic skills) will help us design the next set of more effective interventions for low-income children.

Background: Depression and anxiety are common during the antenatal and postnatal period, and are known to have a significant impact on the woman and her unborn infant. Pregnant women state a preference for non-pharmacological treatment options, and use complementary medicines and therapies to manage these symptoms. We examined the effectiveness and safety of these modalities on depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Methods: CENTRAL, EMBASE and PubMed databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing complementary therapies and medicines to a control, for pregnant women with depression or anxiety. The primary outcome measure was antenatal depression or anxiety. Results: Twenty randomised controlled trials containing 1092 women were included in the review. We found some evidence of reduced antenatal depression from three modalities. Acupuncture reduced the number of women diagnosed with antenatal depression (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.06-2.66, 1 trial). Massage reduced the severity of antenatal depression in one trial of 149 women (SMD-0.73, 95% CI-1.07--0.39). One small trial of bright light therapy found reduced antenatal depression (RR 4.80, 95% CI-8.39--1.21, 27 women). There was no evidence of a reduction in depression and anxiety from relaxation, yoga, mindfulness and fish oils. Overall the risk of bias was high or unclear for the majority of studies. Limitations: There are few high quality randomised controlled trials of complementary medicines and therapies examining the effect on anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Acupuncture, bright light therapy, and massage may reduce antenatal depression. There is a need for high quality and larger studies that include postnatal follow up and maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Mindful breathing has been linked to changes in physiology, but we took the practice further by examining whether a mindfulness breathing intervention, a three-minute breathing exercise marked by focused attention on the sensations of breath, affected writing anxiety, and writing performance measures. In addition, we examined mindful breathing as an intervention for community college students—some of the most at risk and underprepared students in higher education in the United States. We compared Daly Miller Writing Apprehension surveys and narrative writing samples from 277 students enrolled in a freshman composition course at a southeastern community college, half of the class sections were randomly assigned to practice a mindful-breathing technique at the beginning of class sessions. Students in the class sections that practiced mindful-breathing group experienced a statistically significant decrease in writing apprehension and mechanical error scores from pre- to post-test when compared to students in the comparison class sections.

Research indicates that mindfulness is linked to higher-order neurocognitive control processes, and the associated executive functions and self-regulation capacities needed in daily life. The current study examines the roles of executive function and self-regulation in the link between dispositional mindfulness and well-being using a multi-method, two-phase longitudinal design. Two multiple mediator models were tested in a sample of 77 undergraduate students. Self-regulation independently mediated the relationship between mindfulness and positive affect; however, both executive function and self-regulation independently mediated the relationship between mindfulness and negative affect. The mindfulness facets of acting with awareness and non-judgment were most strongly related to executive function and well-being outcomes, while describing and acting with awareness were most strongly related to self-regulation. Performance-based neurocognitive control was related to self-regulation and positive affect, and a test of inhibition/shifting was related to executive function in daily life. Thus, students who are more dispositionally mindful than their peers tend to be non-judgmental and act with awareness, rather than on automatic pilot, which may engage executive functions and self-regulation.

Although one-third of enrolled U.S. undergraduate college students are non-White, little is known about risk factors for suicidal behavior among racial and ethnic minority students. Thus, we set out to determine psychosocial factors associated with recurrent suicidal ideation among racially and ethnically diverse college students with a history of suicide attempt. From 2012–2013, 1,734 racially and ethnically diverse college students completed an on-line survey of suicidal behavior and associated factors.Depression, hopelessness, rejection sensitivity, and mindfulness, as well as past-year discrimination, ethnic identification, and acculturative stress were measured using well-validated self-report instruments. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was used to assess current suicidal ideation. A subsample of 118 college students who self-reported a past suicide attempt were selected for the current analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to test associations between risk factors and the presence of suicidal ideation, and linear regression analysis was used to test factors associated with suicidal ideation severity among those who reported current suicidal ideation.Depression was significantly related to both the presence and severity of current suicidal ideation. Mindfulness, and in particular awareness of present moment experience, was also inversely associated with ideation severity.We found depression and mindlessness were associated with suicidal ideation severity among a sample of diverse college students at high risk for suicidal behavior due to a past suicide attempt. Factors unique to the minority experience, such as acculturative stress, were not associated with current suicidal ideation. Implications for suicide prevention are discussed.

"A call to advance integrative teaching and learning in higher education. From Parker Palmer, best-selling author of The Courage to Teach, and Arthur Zajonc, professor of physics at Amherst College and director of the academic program of the Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, comes this call to revisit the roots and reclaim the vision of higher education. The Heart of Higher Education proposes an approach to teaching and learning that honors the whole human being--mind, heart, and spirit--an essential integration if we hope to address the complex issues of our time. The book offers a rich interplay of analysis, theory, and proposals for action from two educators and writers who have contributed to developing the field of integrative education over the past few decades. Presents Parker Palmer's powerful response to critics of holistic learning and Arthur Zajonc's elucidation of the relationship between science, the humanities, and the contemplative traditions. Explores ways to take steps toward making colleges and universities places that awaken the deepest potential in students, faculty, and staff. Offers a practical approach to fostering renewal in higher education through collegiality and conversation. The Heart of Higher Education is for all who are new to the field of holistic education, all who want to deepen their understanding of its challenges, and all who want to practice and promote this vital approach to teaching and learning on their campuses"--Provided by publisher.

A call to advance integrative teaching and learning in higher education. From Parker Palmer, best-selling author of The Courage to Teach, and Arthur Zajonc, professor of physics at Amherst College and director of the academic program of the Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, comes this call to revisit the roots and reclaim the vision of higher education. The Heart of Higher Education proposes an approach to teaching and learning that honors the whole human being--mind, heart, and spirit--an essential integration if we hope to address the complex issues of our time. The book offers a rich interplay of analysis, theory, and proposals for action from two educators and writers who have contributed to developing the field of integrative education over the past few decades. Presents Parker Palmer's powerful response to critics of holistic learning and Arthur Zajonc's elucidation of the relationship between science, the humanities, and the contemplative traditions. Explores ways to take steps toward making colleges and universities places that awaken the deepest potential in students, faculty, and staff. Offers a practical approach to fostering renewal in higher education through collegiality and conversation. The Heart of Higher Education is for all who are new to the field of holistic education, all who want to deepen their understanding of its challenges, and all who want to practice and promote this vital approach to teaching and learning on their campuses

This thesis explores mindfulness, yoga, and expressive arts practices as modalities to teach social-emotional learning (SEL) skills in public elementary after-school programming. A hermeneutic methodological approach examines these modalities through the theoretical lenses of neuroscience, trauma theory, and the Jungian concept of individuation. The findings integrate these modalities into an imaginary 90-minute vignette that takes place in an elementary after-school program in Southern California. This imaginal approach and integration of Jungian theory and SEL grow out of the author's personal exploration of how yoga, mindfulness, and painting have influenced her own process of individuation over time. The paintings and writings of Jungian analyst Katie Sanford play a crucial role in formulating the importance of expressive arts as a modality for individuation.

Objective To examine the influence of prenatal exercise on depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Design Systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Data sources Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. Study eligibility criteria Studies of all designs were included (except case studies) if they were published in English, Spanish or French and contained information on the Population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), Intervention (subjective or objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise), Comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume and type of exercise) and Outcome (prenatal or postnatal depression or anxiety). Results A total of 52 studies (n=131406) were included. Moderate' quality evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) revealed that exercise-only interventions, but not exercise+cointerventions, reduced the severity of prenatal depressive symptoms (13 RCTs, n=1076; standardised mean difference: -0.38, 95%CI -0.51 to -0.25, I-2=10%) and the odds of prenatal depression by 67% (5 RCTs, n=683; OR: 0.33, 95%CI 0.21 to 0.53, I-2=0%) compared with no exercise. Prenatal exercise did not alter the odds of postpartum depression or the severity of depressive symptoms, nor anxiety or anxiety symptoms during or following pregnancy. To achieve at least a moderate effect size in the reduction of the severity of prenatal depressive symptoms, pregnant women needed to accumulate at least 644 MET-min/week of exercise (eg, 150min of moderate intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, water aerobics, stationary cycling, resistance training). Summary/Conclusions Prenatal exercise reduced the odds and severity of prenatal depression.

Objective To examine the influence of prenatal exercise on depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Design Systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Data sources Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. Study eligibility criteria Studies of all designs were included (except case studies) if they were published in English, Spanish or French and contained information on the Population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), Intervention (subjective or objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise), Comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume and type of exercise) and Outcome (prenatal or postnatal depression or anxiety). Results A total of 52 studies (n=131406) were included. Moderate' quality evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) revealed that exercise-only interventions, but not exercise+cointerventions, reduced the severity of prenatal depressive symptoms (13 RCTs, n=1076; standardised mean difference: -0.38, 95%CI -0.51 to -0.25, I-2=10%) and the odds of prenatal depression by 67% (5 RCTs, n=683; OR: 0.33, 95%CI 0.21 to 0.53, I-2=0%) compared with no exercise. Prenatal exercise did not alter the odds of postpartum depression or the severity of depressive symptoms, nor anxiety or anxiety symptoms during or following pregnancy. To achieve at least a moderate effect size in the reduction of the severity of prenatal depressive symptoms, pregnant women needed to accumulate at least 644 MET-min/week of exercise (eg, 150min of moderate intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, water aerobics, stationary cycling, resistance training). Summary/Conclusions Prenatal exercise reduced the odds and severity of prenatal depression.

Mindfulness training, which involves observing thoughts and feelings without judgment or reaction, has been shown to improve aspects of psychosocial well-being when delivered via in-person training programs such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Less is known about the efficacy of digital training mediums, such as smartphone apps, which are rapidly rising in popularity. In this study, novice meditators were randomly allocated to an introductory mindfulness meditation program or to a psychoeducational audiobook control featuring an introduction to the concepts of mindfulness and meditation. The interventions were delivered via the same mindfulness app, were matched across a range of criteria, and were presented to participants as well-being programs. Affect, irritability, and two distinct components of stress were measured immediately before and after each intervention in a cohort of healthy adults. While both interventions were effective at reducing stress associated with personal vulnerability, only the mindfulness intervention had a significant positive impact on irritability, affect, and stress resulting from external pressure (between group Cohen’s d = 0.44, 0.47, 0.45, respectively). These results suggest that brief mindfulness training has a beneficial impact on several aspects of psychosocial well-being, and that smartphone apps are an effective delivery medium for mindfulness training.

Mindfulness training, which involves observing thoughts and feelings without judgment or reaction, has been shown to improve aspects of psychosocial well-being when delivered via in-person training programs such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Less is known about the efficacy of digital training mediums, such as smartphone apps, which are rapidly rising in popularity. In this study, novice meditators were randomly allocated to an introductory mindfulness meditation program or to a psychoeducational audiobook control featuring an introduction to the concepts of mindfulness and meditation. The interventions were delivered via the same mindfulness app, were matched across a range of criteria, and were presented to participants as well-being programs. Affect, irritability, and two distinct components of stress were measured immediately before and after each intervention in a cohort of healthy adults. While both interventions were effective at reducing stress associated with personal vulnerability, only the mindfulness intervention had a significant positive impact on irritability, affect, and stress resulting from external pressure (between group Cohen’s d = 0.44, 0.47, 0.45, respectively). These results suggest that brief mindfulness training has a beneficial impact on several aspects of psychosocial well-being, and that smartphone apps are an effective delivery medium for mindfulness training.

Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are 2 of the most widely adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom level was used to make comparisons across 4 conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS- and SEL-only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared with the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed.

Application of mindfulness based interventions for youth is growing exponentially within clinical and educational settings. Proponents emphasize benefits in reduction of a wide range of psychopathology including internalizing and externalizing disorders, as well as enhancement of functioning and skills in attentional focus and concentration, emotion regulation, social and academic performance, adaptive coping, frustration tolerance, self-control, and self-esteem. Findings to date are encouraging, though research design reflects the nascent nature of the field and continues to be insufficient to confirm treatment efficacy or mechanisms of change. This article is aimed at providing the clinical practitioner with a review of the current state of the field with regard to application of mindfulness for youth, placing it in context of the broader history of the CBT movement. Specifically mindfulness based stress reduction, mindfulness based cognitive behavioral therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy treatments for youth are critically reviewed, and mindfulness as a technique and as a unifying mechanism of action in “third-wave” youth psychotherapies discussed. Developmental considerations are highlighted, and the application of mindfulness as a universal preventative health measure versus tertiary treatment intervention examined, with consideration for future directions.

Eighty-seven preservice teachers, some of whom had preschool teaching experience, were randomly assigned to an intervention that included training in breathing awareness meditation infused with social-emotional learning (n = 43) or a control group that received training in (n = 44) in breathing awareness meditation only. Both groups showed an increase in mindfulness from pre- to posttest. However, as expected, dimensions of emotional competence improved more significantly for preservice teachers in the intervention group. Increases were also greater for participants with teaching experience. Both groups also increased in the belief that classroom misbehavior would result in negative cognitive and social costs to children, but a larger increasewas observed for the intervention group. Implications for teacher preparation are discussed.

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness predicts general trust and social support among trauma-exposed college students, as well as to examine the potential moderating effect of posttraumatic stress on these relationships. Participants consisted of 536 trauma-exposed college students attending a public university in the southeast United States. After controlling for PTSD symptoms and type of trauma, mindfulness was positively associated with general trust and social support at low and mean levels of PTSD symptomatology; however, the relationships between mindfulness and these variables were nonsignificant at high levels of PTSD symptomatology.

PurposeMen diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer experience higher psychological distress and greater unmet supportive care needs than men with localized disease. A mindfulness-based cognitive therapy group intervention was pilot tested for acceptability and effectiveness in this patient group. Methods Nineteen men were initially recruited to three groups and 12 completed final assessments. Outcomes assessed included anxiety, depression, cancer-related distress, prostate cancer-specific quality of life, and mindfulness skills at baseline, immediately, and 3 months post-intervention. Satisfaction measures and in-depth interviews were undertaken post-intervention to describe men's personal experiences of the groups. Results Significant improvements were observed for anxiety (p = 0.027), avoidance (p = 0.032), and mindfulness skills (p = 0.019), with a trend for a reduction in fear of cancer recurrence (p = 0.062). Effect sizes were moderate to large. A shared group identity, acceptance of, and learning from other group members were key aspects of the group context that contributed to acceptance of progressive disease. Conclusions Mindfulness-based group interventions appear to have utility in this patient group and show promise for reducing anxiety, avoidance, and fear of cancer recurrence. Peer learning appeared to be helpful in generating acceptance of advancing disease.

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