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The prefrontal cortex in primates occupies the anterior part of the frontal lobe on the lateral, medial, and basal surfaces of the brain. Most prefrontal areas have six layers, including a granular layer IV, except for posterior orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal areas, which have fewer than six layers and belong to the cortical limbic system. Prefrontal cortices receive projections from a large variety of sensory association and polymodal cortices, have strong connections with the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, and have direct access to cortical and subcortical motor control systems. Lateral prefrontal cortices are connected with temporal and parietal areas associated with cognitive functions, while orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate areas have robust connections with the amygdala and medial temporal structures associated with emotions and memory. Connections between distinct prefrontal areas suggest that they collaborate in behavior.