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Over the past three decades, the systematic exploration of the primate visual cortex has been a major target of neurobiological research. The visual cortex has been extensively studied in the macaque monkey, whose visual system is similar in many ways to that of humans. On the basis of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral information, ∼30 distinct visual cortical areas have been described in the macaque. Human visual cortex, largely terra incognita until the past decade, is now accessible by neuroimaging techniques, and these techniques have enabled neuroscientists to map the human visual areas with respect to their functional organization. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of key discoveries relating to the human visual cortex.