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The present study examines the relationships between mindfulness and rumination, repetitive negative thinking, and depressive symptoms, employing a newly developed paradigm for the assessment of mindfulness. Derived from a central exercise of mindfulness-based interventions, 42 undergraduates were asked to observe their breath for about 18 min. Within this time period, they were prompted 22 times at irregular intervals to indicate whether they had lost mindful contact with their breath as a result of mind wandering. The results show negative correlations between the degree of the ability to stay mindfully in contact with the breath and measures of rumination, repetitive negative thinking, and depression. Moreover, positive associations with self-report data of mindfulness and a negative relationship to fear of bodily sensations support the construct validity of our new approach for the assessment of mindfulness. In summary, findings suggest the healthy quality of mindful breathing regarding depression-related processes.

The present study examines the relationships between mindfulness and rumination, repetitive negative thinking, and depressive symptoms, employing a newly developed paradigm for the assessment of mindfulness. Derived from a central exercise of mindfulness-based interventions, 42 undergraduates were asked to observe their breath for about 18 min. Within this time period, they were prompted 22 times at irregular intervals to indicate whether they had lost mindful contact with their breath as a result of mind wandering. The results show negative correlations between the degree of the ability to stay mindfully in contact with the breath and measures of rumination, repetitive negative thinking, and depression. Moreover, positive associations with self-report data of mindfulness and a negative relationship to fear of bodily sensations support the construct validity of our new approach for the assessment of mindfulness. In summary, findings suggest the healthy quality of mindful breathing regarding depression-related processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Empirical research has demonstrated associations between heart rate variability (HRV) and the regulation of emotion and behavior. Similarly, self-regulation of attention to one’s experience of the present moment in an accepting and nonjudgmental manner is an essential characteristic of mindfulness that promotes emotional and behavioral regulation and psychological well-being. The present study investigated the relationship between mindfulness and HRV. A total of 23 undergraduate psychology students completed a recently developed measure of mindfulness, the mindful breathing exercise (MBE), which assesses the ability to mindfully stay in contact with one’s breath during breathing meditation. Moreover, indices of HRV were measured during a short version of the MBE. As predicted, positive correlations were found between indices of HRV and mindfulness. The findings demonstrate that the ability to mindfully regulate one’s attention is associated with higher HRV, a physiological correlate of physical and psychological health, and therefore support on a physiological level the potential benefit of the implemented mindfulness exercises in mindfulness-based clinical interventions.