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Introduction: Previously, outpatient Yoga programs for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) lasting several months have been found to reduce pain, analgesic requirement and disability, and improve spinal mobility. This study evaluated changes in pain, anxiety, depression and spinal mobility for CLBP patients on short-term, residential Yoga and physical exercise programs, including comprehensive yoga lifestyle modifications. Methods: A seven day randomized control single blind active study in an residential Holistic Health Centre in Bangalore, India, assigned 80 patients (37 female, 43 male) with CLBP to yoga and physical exercise groups. The Yoga program consisted of specific asanas and pranayamas for back pain, meditation, yogic counselling, and lectures on yoga philosophy. The control group program included physical therapy exercises for back pain, and matching counselling and education sessions. Results: Group x time interactions (p < 0.05) and between group differences (p < 0.05) were significant in all variables. Both groups' scores on the numerical rating scale for pain reduced significantly, 49% in Yoga (p < 0.001, ES = 1.62), 17.5% in controls (p = 0.005, ES = 0.67). State anxiety (STAI) reduced 20.4% (p < 0.001, ES = 0.72) and trait anxiety 16% (p < 0.001, ES = 1.09) in the yoga group. Depression (BDI) decreased in both groups, 47% in yoga (p < 0.001, ES = 0.96,) and 19.9% in controls (p < 0.001, ES = 0.59). Spinal mobility ('Sit and Reach' instrument) improved in both groups, 50%, in yoga (p < 0.001 ES = 2.99) and 34.6% in controls (p < 0.001, ES = 0.81). Conclusion: Seven days intensive residential Yoga program reduces pain, anxiety, and depression, and improves spinal mobility in patients with CLBP more effectively than physiotherapy exercises. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CONTEXT: Psychological comorbidities are prevalent in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contribute to the severity of the disease reducing their health status. Yoga has been shown to alleviate depression and anxiety associated with other chronic diseases but in COPD not been fully investigated. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the role of yoga on health status, depression, and anxiety in coal miners with COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized trial with two study arms (yoga and control), which enrolled 81 coal miners, ranging from 36 to 60 years with stage II and III stable COPD. Both groups were either on conventional treatment or combination of conventional care with yoga program for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Data were collected through standardized questionnaires; COPD Assessment Test, Beck Depression Inventory and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory at the beginning and the end of the intervention. The yoga group showed statistically significant (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: Yoga program led to greater improvement in physical and mental health status than did conventional care. Yoga seems to be a safe, feasible, and effective treatment for patients with COPD. There is a need to conduct more comprehensive, high-quality, evidence-based studies to shed light on the current understanding of the efficacy of yoga in these chronic conditions and identify unanswered questions.