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In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological flexibility. We explain the definition of mindfulness that guides our treatment, and we outline a typology of mindfulness states and show how many of the techniques in our treatment can be analyzed by these categories. We argue that acceptance and mindfulness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations for several reasons. These include their increasing psychological flexibility, decreasing somatic distress, decreasing rumination, serving as emotion regulation techniques, decreasing the attentional bias to threat, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode (which in CA-CBT centers on psychological flexibility). We describe the specific ways we teach acceptance and mindfulness with Latino and Southeast Asian refugee populations and present case examples of the treatment of a traumatized Latino and Cambodian patient.
OBJECTIVE: Some evidence suggests that Hatha yoga might be an effective practice to reduce anxiety. To examine the effect of Hatha yoga on anxiety, we conducted a meta-analysis of relevant studies extracted from PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches. METHODS: The search identified 17 studies (11 waitlist controlled trials) totaling 501 participants who received Hatha yoga and who reported their levels of anxiety before and after the practice. We estimated the controlled and within-group random effects of the practice on anxiety. RESULTS: The pre-post within-group and controlled effect sizes were, Hedges' g = 0.44 and Hedges' g = 0.61, respectively. Treatment efficacy was positively associated with the total number of hours practiced. People with elevated levels of anxiety benefitted the most. Effect sizes were not moderated by study year, gender, presence of a medical disorder, or age. Although the quality of the studies was relatively low, the risk of study bias did not moderate the effect. CONCLUSIONS: Hatha yoga is a promising method for treating anxiety. However, more well-controlled studies are needed to compare the efficacy of Hatha yoga with other more established treatments and to understand its mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of Kundalini Yoga in reducing symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to a common treatment-as-usual condition using cognitive techniques. A secondary objective was to explore potential treatment mechanisms. Females aged 24 to 75 years with GAD ( n = 49) received either an 8-week Kundalini Yoga intervention ( n = 34) or an 8-week treatment-as-usual condition ( n = 15). The yoga condition resulted in lower levels of anxiety relative to the treatment-as-usual condition. Furthermore, changes in somatic symptoms mediated treatment outcome for Kundalini Yoga. Kundalini Yoga may show promise as a treatment for GAD, and this treatment might convey its effect on symptom severity by reducing somatic symptoms.