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A multiple baseline design across three grade level groups with a comparison group was employed to investigate the effectiveness of yoga for improving time on task with 10 elementary school children who evidenced attention problems. A yoga videotape, published by Gaiam, was used that required the children to follow an adult instructor and three children who engaged in deep breathing, physical postures, and relaxation exercises for 30 minutes, twice a week, for a period of 3 weeks. Time on task was defined as the percentage of intervals observed that the students were orientating toward the teacher or task, and performing the requested classroom assignments. The results indicated effect sizes that ranged from 1.5 to 2.7 as a function of the intervention. Effect sizes at follow-up decreased, but ranged from .77 to 1.95. Peer comparison data indicated that classmates’ time on task remained essentially unchanged throughout the three phases of the study.
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