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Echo-Planar functional magnetic resonance imaging (EP-fMRI) was used to study the activity of the amygdala while three normal female subjects viewed alternating blocks of affectively neutral and affectively negative still pictures. Bilateral activation in the amygdala that was significantly correlated with the changing valence of the visual stimuli was found in all three subjects. These findings are consistent with the large corpus of data from non-human studies suggesting that the amygdala is a key structure for extracting the affective significance from external stimuli. This is the first known report of phasic amygdala activation detected with EP-fMRI in normal human subjects responding to affective stimuli.
Four U.S. sites formed a consortium to conduct a multisite study of fMRI methods. The primary purpose of this consortium was to examine the reliability and reproducibility of fMRI results. FMRI data were collected on healthy adults during performance of a spatial working memory task at four different institutions. Two sets of data from each institution were made available. First, data from two subjects were made available from each site and were processed and analyzed as a pooled data set. Second, statistical maps from five to eight subjects per site were made available. These images were aligned in stereotactic space and common regions of activation were examined to address the reproducibility of fMRI results when both image acquisition and analysis vary as a function of site. Our grouped and individual data analyses showed reliable patterns of activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex during performance of the working memory task across all four sites. This multisite study, the first of its kind using fMRI data, demonstrates highly consistent findings across sites.