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Mindfulness plays an increasing role in the field of health psychology, since mindfulness-based interventions in prevention and rehabilitation can lead to a higher bodily well-being and quality of life. How valid is the measurement of self-reported mindfulness as a multidimensional construct using the German translation of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)? The 39-item inventory was translated into German and presented to a sample of 550 undergraduate students. The dimensional structure, reliability, and validity of the different scales were evaluated. Results were largely comparable to those obtained for the original English version of the FFMQ. As anticipated, the five-factor structure was largely replicated and expected associations with symptom distress and indicators of psychological and physical well-being were found. The German version of the FFMQ seems to be an economic, reliable, and valid questionnaire for assessing self-reported mindfulness in a multidimensional way.

During the past decade, theoretical approaches have emerged that call into question the presumption that self-esteem is an absolute prerequisite for healthy functioning. The present study addressed the question of whether a non-judgmental accepting stance towards experience moderates the relationship between self-esteem and depression. In a sample of 216 undergraduate students, self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), acceptance with the ‘accept without judgment’ subscale of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004), and depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck & Steer, 1987). Results showed that non-judgmental acceptance moderates the relationship between self-esteem and depression. In persons with low mindful acceptance, self-esteem was much more closely associated with depression than in persons with high mindful acceptance. These findings suggest that an accepting, allowing, and non-judgmental stance towards present-moment experience might buffer the detrimental effects of low self-esteem on depression.

The present study examines the relationships between mindfulness and rumination, repetitive negative thinking, and depressive symptoms, employing a newly developed paradigm for the assessment of mindfulness. Derived from a central exercise of mindfulness-based interventions, 42 undergraduates were asked to observe their breath for about 18 min. Within this time period, they were prompted 22 times at irregular intervals to indicate whether they had lost mindful contact with their breath as a result of mind wandering. The results show negative correlations between the degree of the ability to stay mindfully in contact with the breath and measures of rumination, repetitive negative thinking, and depression. Moreover, positive associations with self-report data of mindfulness and a negative relationship to fear of bodily sensations support the construct validity of our new approach for the assessment of mindfulness. In summary, findings suggest the healthy quality of mindful breathing regarding depression-related processes.

The present study examines the relationships between mindfulness and rumination, repetitive negative thinking, and depressive symptoms, employing a newly developed paradigm for the assessment of mindfulness. Derived from a central exercise of mindfulness-based interventions, 42 undergraduates were asked to observe their breath for about 18 min. Within this time period, they were prompted 22 times at irregular intervals to indicate whether they had lost mindful contact with their breath as a result of mind wandering. The results show negative correlations between the degree of the ability to stay mindfully in contact with the breath and measures of rumination, repetitive negative thinking, and depression. Moreover, positive associations with self-report data of mindfulness and a negative relationship to fear of bodily sensations support the construct validity of our new approach for the assessment of mindfulness. In summary, findings suggest the healthy quality of mindful breathing regarding depression-related processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Empirical research has demonstrated associations between heart rate variability (HRV) and the regulation of emotion and behavior. Similarly, self-regulation of attention to one’s experience of the present moment in an accepting and nonjudgmental manner is an essential characteristic of mindfulness that promotes emotional and behavioral regulation and psychological well-being. The present study investigated the relationship between mindfulness and HRV. A total of 23 undergraduate psychology students completed a recently developed measure of mindfulness, the mindful breathing exercise (MBE), which assesses the ability to mindfully stay in contact with one’s breath during breathing meditation. Moreover, indices of HRV were measured during a short version of the MBE. As predicted, positive correlations were found between indices of HRV and mindfulness. The findings demonstrate that the ability to mindfully regulate one’s attention is associated with higher HRV, a physiological correlate of physical and psychological health, and therefore support on a physiological level the potential benefit of the implemented mindfulness exercises in mindfulness-based clinical interventions.