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How well is trait mindfulness perceived by outside observers? This question has implications for the conceptualization of trait mindfulness and development and validity of self-report questionnaires. We examine this question via self-other agreement (SOA), observability, and evaluativeness of mindfulness. Study 1 investigated SOA of trait mindfulness with the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in a sample of undergraduates and close others. Self- and other-reports of FFMQ facets agreed more than they disagreed, with SOA correlations ranging from 0.19 to 0.25. Because outside observers are only privy to behaviors rather than internal cognitive and emotional states, SOA correlations suggest that the internal process of mindfulness likely manifests in observable behaviors. Study 2 investigated the observability and evaluativeness of mindfulness via the FFMQ in an independent sample. There were no strong relationships between SOA and either observability or evaluativeness of mindfulness. The absence of a negative relationship between evaluativeness and SOA suggests that SOA is not strongly impacted by enhancing biases in self-report. The absence of a positive relationship between observability and SOA suggests that the observability of the process of mindfulness does not strongly influence the perception of mindfulness by an outside observer. Taken together, results from these two studies suggest that others do perceive mindfulness, and yet the information upon which they base their judgments remains unclear. In keeping with Buddhist teachings and intervention science, we suggest that if process-related behaviors are not used to judge mindfulness, perhaps outcome-related behaviors are used instead.

CONTEXT: Professional musicians often experience high levels of stress, music performance anxiety (MPA), and performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Given the fact that most professional musicians begin their musical training before the age of 12, it is important to identify interventions that will address these issues from an early age.OBJECTIVE: This study intended to replicate and expand upon adult research in this area by evaluating the effects of a yoga intervention on MPA and PRMDs in a population of adolescent musicians. The present study was the first to examine these effects. DESIGN: The research team assigned participants, adolescent musicians, into two groups. The intervention group (n = 84) took part in a 6-wk yoga program, and the control group (n = 51) received no treatment. The team evaluated the effects of the yoga intervention by comparing the scores of the intervention group to those of the control group on a number of questionnaires related to MPA and PRMDs. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Boston University Tanglewood Institute (BUTI). BUTI is a training academy for advanced adolescent musicians, located in Lenox, Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were adolescent, residential music students (mean age = 16 y) in a 6-wk summer program at the BUTI in 2007 and 2008. INTERVENTION: Participants in the yoga intervention group were requested to attend three, 60-min, Kripalustyle yoga classes each wk for 6 wk. OUTCOME MEASURES: MPA was measured using the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A). PRMDs were measured using the Performance-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (PRMD-Q). RESULTS • Yoga participants showed statistically significant reductions in MPA from baseline to the end of the program compared to the control group, as measured by several subscales of the PAQ and MPAI-A; however, the results for PRMDs were inconsistent. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that yoga may be a promising way for adolescents to reduce MPA and perhaps even prevent it in the future. These findings also suggest a novel treatment modality that potentially might alleviate MPA and prevent the early disruption and termination of musical careers.