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Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors investigated several aspects of the construct validity of the FFMQ in experienced meditators and nonmeditating comparison groups. Consistent with predictions, most mindfulness facets were significantly related to meditation experience and to psychological symptoms and well-being. As expected, relationships between the observing facet and psychological adjustment varied with meditation experience. Regression and mediation analyses showed that several of the facets contributed independently to the prediction of well-being and significantly mediated the relationship between meditation experience and well-being. Findings support the construct validity of the FFMQ in a combination of samples not previously investigated.

The authors examined the relationships between change-based and acceptance-based strategies for responding to negative internal experience (thoughts and emotions) and levels of psychological symptoms and well-being. A large sample of undergraduate students completed measures of their general frequency of experiencing negative affect and intrusive thoughts, their typical ways of responding when these experiences occur, and their levels of psychological symptoms and well-being. Correlational analyses showed that most of the identified ways of responding to negative internal experiences were significantly related to psychological symptoms and well-being, even after accounting for the general frequency of experiencing unwanted thoughts and emotions. Regression analyses suggested that change-based ways of responding add little or no incremental variance over acceptance-based strategies in accounting for lower symptom levels and greater well-being.