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Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called Meditation on the Soles of the Feet to control their physical aggression in the family home and during outings in the community. They were taught to shift the focus of their attention from the negative emotions that triggered their aggressive behavior to a neutral stimulus, the soles of their feet. Prior to training in the mindfulness-based procedure the adolescents had moderate rates of aggression. During mindfulness practice, which lasted between 17 and 24 weeks, their mean rates of aggression per week decreased from 2.7, 2.5 and 3.2 to 0.9, 1.1, and 0.9, respectively, with no instances observed during the last 3 weeks of mindfulness practice. No episodes of physical aggression occurred during a 4-year follow-up. This study suggests that adolescents with Asperger syndrome may successfully use a mindfulness-based procedure to control their aggressive behavior.
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Adolescents with conduct disorder frequently engage in aggressive and disruptive behaviors. Often these behaviors are controlled or managed through behavioral or other psychosocial interventions. However, such interventions do not always ensure lasting changes in an adolescent's response repertoire so that he or she does not engage in aggression when exposed to the same situations that gave rise to the behavior previously. Mindfulness training provides a treatment option that helps an individual focus and attend to conditions that give rise to maladaptive behavior.Using a multiple baseline design,we assessed the effectiveness of a mindfulness training procedure in modulating the aggressive behavior of three adolescents who were at risk of expulsion from school because of this behavior. The adolescents were able to learn the mindfulness procedure successfully and use it in situations that previously occasioned aggressive behavior.This led to large decreases in the aggression of all three individuals. Follow-up data showed that the adolescents were able to keep their aggressive behavior at socially acceptable levels in school through to graduation. Maladaptive behaviors, other than aggression, that the adolescents chose not to modify, showed no consistent change during mindfulness training, practice, and follow-up.
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Bhakti has been an all-pervasive concept in the philosophical and religious traditions of India. The origin of bhakti can be traced in the Vedas wherein the root-word bhaj and various synonyms appear and in that point in time no distinction was made between secular (prema) and religious love (bhakti). Narada Bhakti Sutra (NBS) is a premier treatise on the nature of bhakti that emphasizes the connection between bhakti and prema and treats the age-old enigma about the nature of love in an original fashion. NBS has usually been interpreted in a theistic manner, often with theistic interpolations into the text. This paper interprets NBS with a philosophical approach to discover its unique insights on the perennial philosophical issue, namely, ‘what is love?’ and shows that NBS harks back to the age of the Vedas in which secular love and religious love were inter-twined.

An attempt was made to evaluate the effect of Sahaja yoga meditation in stress management in patients of epilepsy. The study was carried out on 32 patients of epilepsy who were rendomly divided into 3 groups: group I subjects practised Sahaja yoga meditation for 6 months, group II subjects practised postural exercises mimicking Sahaja yoga and group III served as the epileptic control group. Galvanic skin resistance (GSR), blood lactate and urinary vinyl mandelic acid (U-VMA) were recorded at 0, 3 and 6 months. There were significant changes at 3 & 6 months as compared to 0 month values in GSR, blood lactate and U-VMA levels in group I subjects, but not in group II and group III subjects. The results indicate that reduction in stress following Sahaja yoga practice may be responsible for clinical improvement which had been earlier reported in patients who practised Sahaja yoga.

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Twenty Type 2 diabetic subjects between theage group of 30-60 years were studied to see the effect of 40 days of <i style="">Yoga</i> <i style="">asanas</i> on biochemical profile. The duration of diabetes ranged from 0 to 10 years. Subjects suffering from cardiac, renal and proliferative retinal complications were excluded from the study. <i style="">Yoga</i> <i style="">asanas</i> included <i style="">Surya Namaskar</i>, <i style="">Tadasan</i>, <i style="">Konasan</i>, <i style="">Padmasan</i>, <i style="">Pranayama</i>, <i style="">Paschimottanasan</i>, <i style="">Ardhmatsyendrasan</i>, <i style="">Shavasan</i>, <i style="">Pavanmuktasan</i>, <i style="">Sarpasan</i> and <i style="">Shavasan</i>. Subjects were called to the cardio-respiratory laboratory in the morning time and were given training by the <i style="">Yoga</i> expert. The <i style="">Yogic</i> exercises were performed for 30 - 40 minutes every day for 40 days in the above sequence. The subjects were prescribed medicines and diet. The basal blood glucose, lipid profile and glycosylated haemoglobin was measured and repeated after 40 days of <i style="">yoga asanas</i>. There was a statistically significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (from baseline 208.3 ± 20.0 to 171.7 ± 19.5 mg/dl) and decrease in Postprandial blood glucose (from 295.3 ± 22.0 to 269.7± 19.9 mg/dl). The decreases in values of serum cholesterol were also statistically significant (from 222.8 ± 10.2 to 207.9 ± 8.6 mg/dl). The triglyceride decreased (from 168.5 ± 15.5 to 146.3 ±13.5 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein improved (from 144.8 ± 8.6 to 140.70 ± 7.9 mg/dl and from 37.4 ± 4.6 to 32.1 ± 3.4 mg/dl). The glycosylated haemoglobin decreased from 10.27 ±0.5 to 8.68 ± 0.4 %. These findings suggest that <i style="">yoga asanas</i> have a beneficial effect on glycaemic control and lipid profile in mild to moderate Type 2 diabetes.

State anxiety, somatization of stress, quality of life, self-rated quality of sleep, and discomfort due to over-breathing which occurs when stressed were studied. Out of a total of 140 participants, seventy participants self-selected to be in a yoga group for stress relief (group mean age +/- SD, 33.0 +/- 6.5 years; 37 males). Seventy age and gender matched participants were in a control group. State anxiety, somatization of stress, quality of life, discomfort and self-rated quality of sleep were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, SF-12, Nijmegen Discomfort Evaluation Scale and a Sleep Rating Questionnaire respectively. Assessments were made at the beginning and end of the week. Repeated measures ANOVAs with Bonferroni adjusted post-hoc analyses showed a significant decrease in state anxiety (P < 0.001), somatization of stress (P < 0.01), improved health-related quality of life (P < 0.01), self-rated quality of sleep (P < 0.01), and decrease in discomfort due to over-breathing (P < 0.001). No changes (except decreased discomfort due to over-breathing; P < 0.01) occurred in the control group. This study suggests that a brief yoga program may be beneficial in decreasing anxiety, somatization of stress and discomfort, improving health-related quality of life and self-rated sleep quality.

This study aimed at studying the effect of yogic package (YP) with some selected pranayama, cleansing practices and meditation on pain intensity, inflammation, stiffness, pulse rate (PR), blood pressure (BP), lymphocyte count (LC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum uric acid (UA) level among subjects of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Randomized control group design was employed to generate pre and post data on participants and controls. Repealed Measure ANOVAs with Bonferroni adjustment were applied to check significant overall difference among pre and post means of participants and controls by using PASW (SPSS Inc. 18th Version). Observed result favored statistically significant positive effect of YP on selected RA parameters and symptoms under study at P<0.05, 0.01 and 0.001 respectively that showed remarkable improvement in RA severity after 40-day practice of YP. It concluded that YP is a significant means to reduce intensity of RA.
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Introduction: A multitude of modalities are available for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis, however, each has its side effects and compliance issues. Bhramari pranayama, which is a breathing exercise in the practice of yoga, offers an inexpensive and free from side effect modality in this regard.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Bhramari pranayama in relieving the symptoms of chronic sinusitis. Methodology: A total of 60 patients with chronic sinusitis were randomly divided into two groups, one received conventional treatment of chronic sinusitis and the other group was in addition taught to practice yogic breathing exercise Bhramari pranayama. The patients were advised to practice this breathing exercise twice a day and were followed up at 1, 4, and 12 weeks using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22 score). Results: The mean SNOT-22 score in the group following the Bhramari pranayama breathing exercise using the ANOVA test improved from 39.13 ± 9.10 to 24.79 ± 8.31 (P = 0.0002), this improvement was seen by the end of 4 weeks itself and continued until the 12th week of assessment. Conclusion: Integrating regular practice of Bhramari pranayama along with the conventional management of chronic rhinosinusitis is more effective than conventional management alone.

The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) was used to examine the association between individual differences in FFFS-fear (threat detection/avoidance) and BIS-anxiety (conflict detection/cautious approach), psychological acceptance and job demands on work engagement. Moderated mediation analysis was used to test a model assessing the indirect path between BIS-anxiety/FFFS-fear and work engagement via psychological acceptance across high and low demanding jobs. Using a sample of 228 casual, part-time and full-time workers we found that FFFS-fear, rather than BIS-anxiety, predicted lower psychological acceptance which, in turn, was associated with lower work engagement; this indirect effect was only evident when the job was considered demanding. These results suggest that interventions for improving work engagement may be enhanced by targeting psychological acceptance, particularly in highly demanding jobs.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min) for 5 minutes on heart rate and blood pressure and the effect of the same breathing exercise for the same duration of time (5 minutes) following oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide (Buscopan), a parasympathetic blocker drug.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Heart rate and blood pressure of volunteers (n = 39, age = 25-40 years) was recorded following standard procedure. First, subjects had to sit comfortably in an easy and steady posture (sukhasana) on a fairly soft seat placed on the floor keeping head, neck, and trunk erect, eyes closed, and the other muscles reasonably loose. The subject is directed to inhale through both nostrils slowly up to the maximum for about 4 seconds and then exhale slowly up to the maximum through both nostrils for about 6 seconds. The breathing must not be abdominal. These steps complete one cycle of slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min). During the practice the subject is asked not to think much about the inhalation and exhalation time, but rather was requested to imagine the open blue sky. The pranayama was conducted in a cool, well-ventilated room (18-20 degrees C). After 5 minutes of this breathing practice, the blood pressure and heart rate again were recorded in the aforesaid manner using the same instrument. The other group (n = 10) took part in another study where their blood pressure and heart rate were recorded following half an hour of oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide 20 mg. Then they practiced the breathing exercise as stated above, and the abovementioned parameters were recorded again to study the effect of parasympathetic blockade on the same pranayama. RESULTS: It was noted that after slow bhastrika pranayamic breathing (respiratory rate 6/min) for 5 minutes, both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly with a slight fall in heart rate. No significant alteration in both blood pressure and heart rate was observed in volunteers who performed the same breathing exercise for the same duration following oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide. DISCUSSION: Pranayama increases frequency and duration of inhibitory neural impulses by activating pulmonary stretch receptors during above tidal volume inhalation as in Hering Bruer reflex, which bring about withdrawal of sympathetic tone in the skeletal muscle blood vessels, leading to widespread vasodilatation, thus causing decrease in peripheral resistance and thus decreasing the diastolic blood pressure. After hyoscine-N-butylbromide, the parasympathetic blocker, it was observed that blood pressure was not decreased significantly as a result of pranayama, as it was observed when no drug was administered. CONCLUSIONS: Vagal cardiac and pulmonary mechanisms are linked, and improvement in one vagal limb might spill over into the other. Baroreceptor sensitivity can be enhanced significantly by slow breathing (supported by a small reduction in the heart rate observed during slow breathing and by reduction in both systolic and diastolic pressure). Slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min) exercise thus shows a strong tendency to improving the autonomic nervous system through enhanced activation of the parasympathetic system.

Siva Sutras are considered to be a revealed book of the Yoga: supreme identity of the individual self with the Divine. Dr. Jaideva Singh has studied the book with the help of his guru Swami Laksmana Joo, the sole surviving exponent of this system in Kashmir and has provided an English Translation of the Sutras together with the commentary of Ksemaraja. Each Sutra is given in Devanagari as well as in Roman Script. Then the meaning of every word of the Sutra is given in English, followed by a translation of the whole Sutra. This is followed by the Vimarsini Commentary in Sanskrit and its English translation, copious notes on important and technical words and a running exposition of the main ideas of the Sutra. A long introduction, together with an abstract of each Sutra, throws a flood of light on the entire system of Saiva Yoga. A Glossary of technical terms and index are appended for the convenience of the reader.

Proven effective by scientific research and presented here by Dr. Dharma Singh Khalsa and Cameron Stauth, the practice of Medical Meditation revolutionizes the healing process. By balancing and regenerating the body's ethereal and physical energies through simple meditations, Medical Meditation unites the mind, body, and spirit into a powerful triad. Each Medical Meditation here has a specific physiological effect, targeting afflictions from arthritis to ulcers to cancer. Dr. Khalsa details the five unique attributes that endow this type of meditation with far more power than standard meditation. The combination of special postures and movements; exact positioning of the hands and fingers; particular mantras; specific breathing patterns; and a unique focus of concentration can change your entire biochemical profile, easing you into a calm, healing state. Practiced in conjunction with conventional or alternative medical treatments, cutting-edge Medical Meditation activates the healing force within you.

IMPORTANCE:Many people meditate to reduce psychological stress and stress-related health problems. To counsel people appropriately, clinicians need to know what the evidence says about the health benefits of meditation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of meditation programs in improving stress-related outcomes (anxiety, depression, stress/distress, positive mood, mental health-related quality of life, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, pain, and weight) in diverse adult clinical populations. EVIDENCE REVIEW: We identified randomized clinical trials with active controls for placebo effects through November 2012 from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, PsycArticles, Scopus, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library, and hand searches. Two independent reviewers screened citations and extracted data. We graded the strength of evidence using 4 domains (risk of bias, precision, directness, and consistency) and determined the magnitude and direction of effect by calculating the relative difference between groups in change from baseline. When possible, we conducted meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size with 95% confidence intervals. FINDINGS: After reviewing 18 753 citations, we included 47 trials with 3515 participants. Mindfulness meditation programs had moderate evidence of improved anxiety (effect size, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.12-0.64] at 8 weeks and 0.22 [0.02-0.43] at 3-6 months), depression (0.30 [0.00-0.59] at 8 weeks and 0.23 [0.05-0.42] at 3-6 months), and pain (0.33 [0.03- 0.62]) and low evidence of improved stress/distress and mental health-related quality of life. We found low evidence of no effect or insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, and weight. We found no evidence that meditation programs were better than any active treatment (ie, drugs, exercise, and other behavioral therapies). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Clinicians should be aware that meditation programs can result in small to moderate reductions of multiple negative dimensions of psychological stress. Thus, clinicians should be prepared to talk with their patients about the role that a meditation program could have in addressing psychological stress. Stronger study designs are needed to determine the effects of meditation programs in improving the positive dimensions of mental health and stress-related behavior.

AIM: The present study focuses on analyzing the effects of Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) on EEG as well as ECG signals for stress regulation. To envision the regulation of stress Determination Test (DT) has been used. We have chosen a control group for contriving a cogent comparison that could be corroborated using statistical tests. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 20 subjects were taken in the study, of which 10 were allotted to a control group. Electroencephalograph was taken during a DT task, before and after SKY the sky session with 30 days of SKY session given to the experimental group. No SKY was given to the control group. RESULTS: We quantified mental stress using EEG, ECG and DT synergistically and used SKY to regulate it. We observed that alpha band power decreases in the frontal lobe of the brain with increasing mental stress while frontal brain asymmetry decreases with increasing stress tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: These EEG, ECG and DT shows a significant decrement in mental stress and improvement in cognitive performance after SKY, indicating SKY as a good alternative of medication for stress management.

Some individuals with autism engage in physical aggression to an extent that interferes with not only their quality of life, but also that of their parents and siblings. Behavioral and psychopharmacological treatments have been the mainstay of treatments for aggression in children and adolescents with autism. We evaluated the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based procedure, Meditation on the Soles of the Feet, in helping three adolescents to manage their physical aggression. This procedure required the adolescents to rapidly shift the focus of their attention from the aggression-triggering event to a neutral place on their body, the soles of their feet. Incidents of aggression across the three adolescents ranged from a mean of 14–20 per week during baseline, 4–6 per week during mindfulness training, including zero rates during the last 4 weeks of intervention. Aggression occurred a rate of about 1 per year during a 3-year follow-up. Our results suggest adolescents with autism can learn, and effectively use, a mindfulness-based procedure to self-manage their physical aggression over several years.
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Children with ADHD are often non-compliant with parental instructions. Various methods have been used to reduce problem behaviors in these children, with medication and manipulation of behavioral contingencies being the most prevalent. An objection often raised by parents is that these management strategies require them to impose external control on the children which not only results in the children not learning self-control strategies, but also does not enhance positive interactions between them and their parents. Studies have shown that providing mindfulness training to parents, without a focus on reducing problem behaviors, can enhance positive interactions with their children and increase their satisfaction with parenting. We were interested to see what effects giving mindfulness training to two mothers, and subsequently to their children, would have on compliance by the children. Using a multiple baseline across mothers and children design, we found that giving a mother mindfulness training enhanced compliance by her child. When the children were subsequently given similar training, compliance increased even more markedly, and was maintained during follow-up. The mothers reported associated increases in satisfaction with the interactions with their children and happiness with parenting. We suspect that the mindfulness training produces personal transformations, both in parents and children, rather than teaching strategies for changing behavior.

We measured the effects of preschool teachers attending an 8-week mindfulness course on the behavior of the students in their classroom. Results showed that decreases in the students’ challenging behaviors and increases in their compliance with teacher requests began during mindfulness training for the teachers and continued to change following the training. While the students did not show a change in positive social interactions with peers, they did show a decrease in negative social interactions and an increase in isolate play. Our results indicate that mindfulness training for teachers was effective in changing teacher-student interactions in desirable ways.

Research shows that after training in the philosophy and practice of mindfulness, parents can mindfully attend to the challenging behaviors of their children with autism. Parents also report an increased satisfaction with their parenting skills and social interactions with their children. These findings were replicated and extended with 4 parents of children who had developmental disabilities, exhibited aggressive behavior, and had limited social skills. After mindfulness training, the parents were able to decrease aggressive behavior and increase their children's social skills. They also reported a greater practice of mindfulness, increased satisfaction with their parenting, more social interactions with their children, and lower parenting stress. Furthermore, the children showed increased positive and decreased negative social interactions with their siblings. We speculate that mindfulness produces transformational change in the parents that is reflected in enhanced positive behavioral transactions with their children.

BACKGROUND: An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed.METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers (group average age +/- S.D, 31.5 +/- 7.5 years; all of them were males) were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre) and an increase in anxiety in the control group (p < 0.05, paired t-test, post data compared to pre). CONCLUSIONS: A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285.

As many schools move toward a three-tier model that incorporates a Response to Intervention (RtI) service delivery model in the social, emotional, and behavioral domains, school psychologists may provide leadership. The decision-making process for filtering students through multiple tiers of support and intervention and examining change is an area where school psychologists are encouraged to apply their expertise regarding assessment and evidence-based interventions. This paper describes an implementation of behavioral and social-emotional RtI in an elementary school setting. Issues and challenges related to measurement of change (i.e., responsiveness to intervention) and identification of students for additional supports as well as emerging possibilities of incorporating qualitative information in the process are discussed. (Contains 1 figure, 1 footnote and 3 tables.)

BACKGROUND: Following a natural disaster, survivors are vulnerable to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/ or depression.OBJECTIVES: (i) To screen survivors of the Bihar floods a month after the event to determine their scores in a screening questionnaire for PTSD and/ or depression and (ii) to correlate these scores with age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand two hundred eighty-nine persons (645 females) who had been directly exposed to the floods in Bihar, India, in August 2008 were assessed. The Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health (SQD) was used to screen for PTSD and depression. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Separate two-factor ANOVAs were used to compare persons of both sexes and 5 different age groups for PTSD and depression scores. This was followed by post-hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: People over the age of 60 years had significantly higher scores for PTSD and depression compared to all groups (P< 0.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION: Following a natural disaster, older people appear more vulnerable to develop PTSD and depression. This should be taken into account in devising strategies for disaster relief.

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