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BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue is widely prevalent in cancer patients and affects quality of life in advanced cancer patients. Fatigue is caused due to both psychologic distress and physiological sequel following cancer progression and its treatment. In this study, we evaluate the effects of yogic intervention in managing fatigue in metastatic breast cancer patients.METHODS: Ninety-one patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomized to receive integrated yoga program (n = 46) or supportive therapy and education (n = 45) over a 3-month period. Assessments such as perceived stress, fatigue symptom inventory, diurnal salivary cortisol, and natural killer cell counts were carried out before and after intervention. Analysis was done using an intention-to-treat approach. Postmeasures for the above outcomes were assessed using ANCOVA with respective baseline measure as a covariate. RESULTS: The results suggest that yoga reduces perceived stress (P = 0.001), fatigue frequency (P < 0.001), fatigue severity (P < 0.001), interference (P < 0.001), and diurnal variation (P < 0.001) when compared to supportive therapy. There was a positive correlation of change in fatigue severity with 9 a.m. salivary cortisol levels. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that yoga reduces fatigue in advanced breast cancer patients.

Objectives. This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy at a cancer center. Methods. Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients are randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to radiotherapy treatment. Assessments include diurnal salivary cortisol levels 3 days before and after radiotherapy and self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and stress collected before and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy. Results. Analysis of covariance reveals significant decreases in anxiety (P < .001), depression (P = .002), perceived stress (P < .001), 6 a.m. salivary cortisol (P = .009), and pooled mean cortisol (P = .03) in the yoga group compared with controls. There is a significant positive correlation between morning salivary cortisol level and anxiety and depression. Conclusion. Yoga might have a role in managing self-reported psychological distress and modulating circadian patterns of stress hormones in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy.

Objectives. This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy at a cancer center. Methods. Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients are randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to radiotherapy treatment. Assessments include diurnal salivary cortisol levels 3 days before and after radiotherapy and self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and stress collected before and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy. Results. Analysis of covariance reveals significant decreases in anxiety (P < .001), depression (P = .002), perceived stress (P < .001), 6 a.m. salivary cortisol (P = .009), and pooled mean cortisol (P = .03) in the yoga group compared with controls. There is a significant positive correlation between morning salivary cortisol level and anxiety and depression. Conclusion. Yoga might have a role in managing self-reported psychological distress and modulating circadian patterns of stress hormones in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy.

Objectives. This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy at a cancer center. Methods. Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients are randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to radiotherapy treatment. Assessments include diurnal salivary cortisol levels 3 days before and after radiotherapy and self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and stress collected before and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy. Results. Analysis of covariance reveals significant decreases in anxiety (P < .001), depression (P = .002), perceived stress (P < .001), 6 a.m. salivary cortisol (P = .009), and pooled mean cortisol (P = .03) in the yoga group compared with controls. There is a significant positive correlation between morning salivary cortisol level and anxiety and depression. Conclusion. Yoga might have a role in managing self-reported psychological distress and modulating circadian patterns of stress hormones in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy.

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy at a cancer centre.METHODS: Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to their radiotherapy treatment. Intervention consisted of yoga sessions lasting 60 min daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy once in 10 days. Assessments included European Organization for Research in the Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life (EORTCQoL C30) functional scales and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Assessments were done at baseline and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy treatment. RESULTS: An intention to treat GLM repeated measures ANOVA showed significant difference across groups over time for positive affect, negative affect and emotional function and social function. There was significant improvement in positive affect (ES = 0.59, p = 0.007, 95%CI 1.25 to 7.8), emotional function (ES = 0.71, p = 0.001, 95%CI 6.45 to 25.33) and cognitive function (ES = 0.48, p = 0.03, 95%CI 1.2 to 18.5), and decrease in negative affect (ES = 0.84, p<0.001, 95%CI -13.4 to -4.4) in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between positive affect with role function, social function and global quality of life. There was a significant negative correlation between negative affect with physical function, role function, emotional function and social function. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a possible role for yoga to improve quality of life and affect in breast cancer outpatients.

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that distress and accompanying neuroendocrine stress responses as important predictor of survival in advanced breast cancer patients. Some psychotherapeutic intervention studies have shown have modulation of neuroendocrine-immune responses in advanced breast cancer patients. In this study, we evaluate the effects of yoga on perceived stress, sleep, diurnal cortisol, and natural killer (NK) cell counts in patients with metastatic cancer.METHODS: In this study, 91 patients with metastatic breast cancer who satisfied selection criteria and consented to participate were recruited and randomized to receive "integrated yoga based stress reduction program" (n = 45) or standard "education and supportive therapy sessions" (n = 46) over a 3 month period. Psychometric assessments for sleep quality were done before and after intervention. Blood draws for NK cell counts were collected before and after the intervention. Saliva samples were collected for three consecutive days before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance on postmeasures using respective baseline measure as a covariate. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in scales of symptom distress (P < 0.001), sleep parameters (P = 0.02), and improvement in quality of sleep (P = 0.001) and Insomnia Rating Scale sleep score (P = 0.001) following intervention. There was a decrease in morning waking cortisol in yoga group (P = 0.003) alone following intervention. There was a significant improvement in NK cell percent (P = 0.03) following intervention in yoga group compared to control group. CONCLUSION: The results suggest modulation of neuroendocrine responses and improvement in sleep in patients with advanced breast cancer following yoga intervention.

Background: Yoga is considered to be one of the most important, effective, and valuable tools available for man to overcome various physical and psychological problems. Stress contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases; hence, it becomes important to reduce the level of stress for prevention and management of diseases. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed: (1) To understand and analyze the possibilities of employing yogic practices in the treatment of periodontal disease along with conventional dental therapy, (2) to understand the effect of stress on periodontal treatment outcome, (3) to evaluate the efficacy of yoga in the management of periodontal disease with reference to stress. Materials and Methods: An outpatient department-based parallel group randomized study was performed with standard treatment for periodontal disease yoga therapy as Group II and only standard treatment as Group I. Periodontal health status was recorded using indices of modified plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth, and clinical attachment loss (CAL). The Cohen's perceived stress questionnaire was also used to determine stress severity. The yogic intervention consists of lectures and practical sessions on asanas, pranayama, kriyas, and meditation. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in all the outcome variables with respect to time in both groups. It was observed that mean PI score reduced by 1.35 in Group II as compared to 0.54 in Group I, mean probing pocket depth reduced by 1.60 in Group II as compared to only 0.68 in Group I, and mean CAL score reduced by 1.60 in Group II as compared to 0.68 in Group I. Similarly, Cohen's perceived stress scale score also reduced by 18.76 points in Group II as compared to only 2.58 points in Group I, BOP also shows better improvement in Group II with a reduction of 0.68 as compared to reduction of only 0.08 in Group I. The results obtained ascertained the role of yoga in stress reduction in periodontal disease. Conclusion: Although yoga does not play a direct role in improving periodontal disease, it accelerates the treatment outcomes by combating the stress which is a major factor affecting the treatment of periodontal disease.