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Five days of integrative body-mind training (IBMT) improves attention and self-regulation in comparison with the same amount of relaxation training. This paper explores the underlying mechanisms of this finding. We measured the physiological and brain changes at rest before, during, and after 5 days of IBMT and relaxation training. During and after training, the IBMT group showed significantly better physiological reactions in heart rate, respiratory amplitude and rate, and skin conductance response (SCR) than the relaxation control. Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and after training. Imaging data demonstrated stronger subgenual and adjacent ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity in the IBMT group. Frontal midline ACC theta was correlated with highfrequency HRV, suggesting control by the ACC over parasympathetic activity. These results indicate that after 5 days of training, the IBMT group shows better regulation of the ANS by a ventral midfrontal brain system than does the relaxation group. This changed state probably reflects training in the coordination of body and mind given in the IBMT but not in the control group. These results could be useful in the design of further specific interventions.

Introduction - Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been frequently used to dispel rheumatism and ease pain. There are four species of <i>Gentiana </i>(<i>G</i>. <i>macrophylla</i>, <i>G</i>. <i>straminea</i>, <i>G</i>. <i>dahurica</i> and <i>G</i>. <i>crassicaulis</i>) recorded as herbal drugs in the <i>Chinese Pharmacopoeia </i>and two other <i>Gentiana</i> species (<i>G</i>. <i>officinalis</i> and <i>G</i>. <i>siphonantha</i>) are often used as substitutes. Currently, the LC fingerprint comparison among different species and evidence for the equivalent application of these herbs are lacking.<br>Objective - To develop an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides and a comparative study of six species of <i>Gentiana</i>.<br>Methodology - HPLC analysis was performed on a C<sub>18</sub> column (Phenomenex, 150 × 4.6  mm, 5  µm particle size) with gradient elution using 0.4% aqueous phosphoric acid and methanol at 242  nm.<br>Results - The proposed method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough for simultaneous quantitative evaluation of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides (loganic acid, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside) in the six species of <i>Gentiana</i>. Contents of the four marker compounds varied from each other even among the samples from the same species and the LC chromatograms of the six species of <i>Gentiana</i> showed high similarities.<br>Conslusion - The close similarity of LC chromatograms and chemical composition of the four genuine <i>Gentiana</i> species explain their popular usage as Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae in Chinese medicine. By comparing the four genuine <i>Gentiana</i> species, it is suggested that the two substitutes could be used as Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae to relieve the scarcity of resources. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.<br>An HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous determination of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides and the fingerprints of the six <i>Gentiana</i> species was analyzed and compared. The close similarity of LC chromatograms and chemical composition of the four <i>Gentiana</i> species (<i>G. macrophylla</i>, <i>G. straminea</i>, <i>G. dahurica</i> and <i>G. crassicaulis</i>) explain their popular usage as Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae in Chinese medicine. By comparing the four genuine <i>Gentiana</i> species, it is suggested that <i>G. officinalis</i> and <i>G. siphonantha</i> could be used as Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae to relieve the scarcity of resources.